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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 30, 2021
Registration No. 333-          
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
Desktop Metal, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
3559
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
83-2044042
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
63 3rd Avenue
Burlington, Massachusetts 01803
(978) 224-1244
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Meg Broderick
General Counsel
63 3rd Avenue
Burlington, Massachusetts 01803
(978) 224-1244
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
John H. Chory
Susan L. Mazur
Ryan J. Maierson
Emily E. Taylor
Latham & Watkins LLP
200 Clarendon Street
Boston, MA 02116
(617) 948-6000
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
As soon as practicable after the effective date of this Registration Statement.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of
Securities to Be Registered
Amount
to be
Registered(1)(2)
Proposed Maximum
Offering Price
Per Share(3)
Proposed Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price(3)
Amount of
Registration Fee(3)
Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share
2,492,249 $ 12.50 $ 31,153,113 $ 3,399
(1)
Consists of 2,492,249 shares of Class A common stock registered for sale by the selling securityholders named in this registration statement.
(2)
Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement also covers any additional number of shares of common stock issuable upon stock splits, stock dividends or other distribution, recapitalization or similar events with respect to the shares of Class A common stock being registered pursuant to this registration statement.
(3)
Estimated solely for purposes of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(c) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and based on the average of the high and low sales price per share of the registrant’s Class A common stock on the New York Stock Exchange on June 25, 2021.
The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to Completion Preliminary Prospectus dated June 30, 2021.
PROSPECTUS
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_desktopmetaltm-4c.jpg]
Desktop Metal, Inc.
2,492,249 Shares of Class A Common Stock
This prospectus relates to the resale, from time to time, of up to 2,492,249 shares of our Class A common stock by the selling securityholders (including their pledgees, donees, transferees or other successors-in-interest) identified in this prospectus, or the Selling Securityholders.
We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of the shares by the Selling Securityholders.
We will bear all costs, expenses and fees in connection with the registration of the shares of Class A common stock. The Selling Securityholders will bear all commissions and discounts, if any, attributable to their sales of the shares of Class A common stock.
Our Class A common stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “DM”. On June 29, 2021, the closing sale price of our Class A common stock as reported on the NYSE was $12.03.
We are an “emerging growth company” under applicable Securities and Exchange Commission rules and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company disclosure requirements for this prospectus and future filings. See “Prospectus Summary — Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company.”
Our business and investment in our Class A common stock involve significant risks. These risks are described in the section titled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 5 of this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is            , 2021.

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, the Selling Securityholders may sell up to 2,492,249 shares of Class A common stock from time to time in one or more offerings as described in this prospectus. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of Class A common stock by the Selling Securityholders.
We may also file a prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment, you should rely on the prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment, as applicable. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read this prospectus, any post-effective amendment, and any applicable prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Neither we, nor the Selling Securityholders, have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any post-effective amendment, or any applicable prospectus supplement prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We and the Selling Securityholders take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We and the Selling Securityholders will not make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any post-effective amendment and any applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on its respective cover. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. This prospectus contains, and any post-effective amendment or any prospectus supplement may contain, market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. In addition, the market and industry data and forecasts that may be included in this prospectus, any post-effective amendment or any prospectus supplement may involve estimates, assumptions and other risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, any post-effective amendment and the applicable prospectus supplement. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.
We own or have rights to trademarks, trade names and service marks that we use in connection with the operation of our business. In addition, our name, logos and website name and address are our trademarks or service marks. Solely for convenience, in some cases, the trademarks, trade names and service marks referred to in this prospectus are listed without the applicable ®, ™ and SM symbols, but we will assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights to these trademarks, trade names and service marks. Other trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners.
As used in this prospectus, unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” the “company” and “Desktop Metal” refer to the consolidated operations of Desktop Metal, Inc. and its subsidiaries. References to “Trine” refer to the company prior to the consummation of the Business Combination and references to “Legacy Desktop Metal” refer to Desktop Metal Operating, Inc. prior to the consummation of the Business Combination.
 
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements. We intend such forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, our business strategy, plans and prospects, existing and prospective products, research and development costs, timing and likelihood of success, and plans, market growth, trends, events and our objectives of management for future operations and results, are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.
In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “project,” “contemplate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. The forward-looking statements in this prospectus are only predictions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this prospectus and are subject to a number of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements, including the risks, uncertainties and assumptions described under the section in this prospectus titled “Risk Factors.” These forward-looking statements are subject to numerous risks, including, without limitation, the following: the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, including on our third-party suppliers;

our ability to realize the benefits of our acquisitions;

our ability to continue to develop new products and innovations to meet constantly evolving customer demands;

our ability to design, produce, launch and commercialize additive manufacturing systems on the planned timelines;

our ability to develop a recurring stream of revenue through the sale of consumables and service contracts related to the additive manufacturing systems;

our acquisition of, or investment in, other businesses, patents, technologies, products or services to grow our business;

our ability to attract, train and retain key management and other key personnel;

our ability to enhance future operating and financial results;

compliance with laws and regulations applicable to our business;

our ability to successfully defend against litigation;

our ability to upgrade, maintain and avoid disruptions to our information technology systems;

our ability to protect and defend our intellectual property; and

our ability to meet future liquidity requirements and comply with restrictive covenants related to long term indebtedness.
Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified and some of which are beyond our control, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus will prove to be accurate. Except as required by applicable law, we do not
 
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plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events, changed circumstances, or otherwise.
You should read this prospectus completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights, and is qualified in its entirety by, the more detailed information and financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information that may be important to you in making your investment decision. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, especially the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page 6 and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing at the end of this prospectus, before deciding to invest in our Class A common stock.
Overview
Desktop Metal is pioneering a new generation of additive manufacturing technologies focused on Additive Manufacturing 2.0, the volume production of end-use parts. We offer a comprehensive portfolio of integrated additive manufacturing solutions comprised of hardware, software, materials and services, with support for metals, composites, polymers, ceramics, sands, biocompatible materials, wood and elastomers. Our solutions span use cases across the product life cycle, from product development to mass production and aftermarket operations, and they address an array of industries, including automotive, healthcare and dental, consumer products, heavy industry, aerospace, machine design and research and development.
At Desktop Metal, we believe additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is one of the most exciting and transformational technology innovations of our time. It has the capacity to change the way parts of nearly all materials are designed, manufactured and sold around the world, and it provides businesses of all sizes the means to make high performance products faster, more sustainably, and at costs and volumes competitive with conventional manufacturing processes. Our mission is to make Additive Manufacturing 2.0 accessible to all engineers, designers and manufacturers. In doing so, we believe we will empower businesses to adopt radical, new approaches to design and production and enable the success of many of the high growth industries that will drive global economic growth in the years to come.
Recent Developments
On May 7, 2021, we, Diamond US Merger Sub, Inc., Diamond US LLC, Adaptive 3D Holdings, Inc., or Adaptive 3D, and Fortis Advisor LLC entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger, or the A3D Merger Agreement, pursuant to which we acquired Adaptive 3D for an aggregate purchase price of $24.1 million in cash and 3,133,276 shares of our Class A common stock, or the A3D Acquisition. Pursuant to the A3D Merger Agreement, we agreed to register the resale of the shares issued in the A3D Acquistion by the selling securityholders.
Risk Factors
Our business is subject to a number of risks of which you should be aware before making an investment decision. These risks are discussed more fully in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus immediately following this prospectus summary. These risks include the following:

We are an early-stage company with a history of losses. We have not been profitable historically and may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.As part of our growth strategy, we intend to continue to acquire or make investments in other businesses, patents, technologies, products or services. Our efforts to do so, or our failure to do so successfully, could disrupt our business and have an adverse impact on our financial condition.

We may experience difficulties in integrating the operations of acquired companies into our business and in realizing the expected benefits of these acquisitions.

We may experience significant delays in the design, production and launch of our additive manufacturing solutions, and we may be unable to successfully commercialize products on our planned timelines.

If demand for our products does not grow as expected, or if market adoption of additive manufacturing does not continue to develop, or develops more slowly than expected, our revenues may stagnate or decline, and our business may be adversely affected.
 
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The additive manufacturing industry in which we operate is characterized by rapid technological change, which requires us to continue to develop new products and innovations to meet constantly evolving customer demands and which could adversely affect market adoption of our products.

Future sales, or the perception of future sales, of our Class A common stock by us or our existing stockholders in the public market could cause the market price for our Class A common stock to decline.

We are an “emerging growth company” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our Class A common stock less attractive to investors.
Corporate Information
We were incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware on September 26, 2018 under the name Trine Acquisition Corp. Upon the closing of the Business Combination, we changed our name to Desktop Metal, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 63 3rd Street, Burlington, Massachusetts 01803 and our telephone number is (978) 224-1244. Our website address is www.desktopmetal.com. The information contained in, or accessible through, our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company
As a company with less than $1.07 billion in revenue during our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, or JOBS Act. An “emerging growth company” may take advantage of reduced reporting requirements that are otherwise applicable to public companies. These provisions include, but are not limited to:

the option to present only two years of audited financial statements and only two years of related “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this prospectus;

not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes- Oxley Act of 2002, as amended;

not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements (i.e., an auditor discussion and analysis);

reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports, proxy statements and registration statements; and

exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote of stockholders on executive compensation, stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved and having to disclose the ratio of the compensation of our chief executive officer to the median compensation of our employees.
We may take advantage of these provisions until the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of the initial public offering of our securities. However, if (i) our annual gross revenue exceeds $1.07 billion, (ii) we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt in any three- year period or (iii) we become a “large accelerated filer” ​(as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act) prior to the end of such five-year period, we will cease to be an emerging growth company. We will be deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” at such time that we (a) have an aggregate worldwide market value of common equity securities held by non-affiliates of $700.0 million or more as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter, (b) have been required to file annual and quarterly report under the Exchange Act, for a period of at least 12 months and (c) have filed at least one annual report pursuant to the Exchange Act.
We have elected to take advantage of certain of the reduced disclosure obligations in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and may elect to take advantage of other reduced reporting
 
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requirements in future filings. As a result, the information that we provide to our stockholders may be different than you might receive from other public reporting companies in which you hold equity interests.
In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. We have elected to use the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. As a result of this election, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with public company effective dates.
 
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The Offering
Class A common stock offered by selling securityholders
2,492,249 shares
Use of proceeds
We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares by the selling securityholders.
Risk factors
You should carefully read the “Risk Factors” beginning on page 5 and the other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should consider carefully before deciding to invest in our Class A common stock.
NYSE symbol for our Class A common stock
“DM”
 
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RISK FACTORS
You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below and the other information in this prospectus before making an investment in our Class A common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, or prospects could be materially and adversely affected if any of these risks occurs, and as a result, the market price of our Class A common stock could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. See “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” Our actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including those set forth below.
Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital
We are an early-stage company with a history of losses. We have not been profitable historically and may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.
We experienced net losses in each year from our inception, including net losses of $90.4 million and $103.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. We believe we will continue to incur operating losses and negative cash flow in the near-term as we continue to invest significantly in our business, in particular across our research and development efforts and sales and marketing programs. These investments may not result in increased revenue or growth in our business.
In addition, as a public company, we incur significant additional legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. These increased expenditures may make it harder for us to achieve and maintain future profitability. Revenue growth and growth in our customer base may not be sustainable, and we may not achieve sufficient revenue to achieve or maintain profitability. While we have generated revenue in the past, we have only recently begun commercial shipments of several of our announced additive manufacturing solutions, some of which are expected to generate a substantial portion of our revenue going forward, and it is difficult for us to predict our future operating results. We may incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including due to the other risks described in this prospectus, and we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays and other unknown events. As a result, our losses may be larger than anticipated, we may incur significant losses for the foreseeable future, and we may not achieve profitability when expected, or at all, and even if we do, we may not be able to maintain or increase profitability. Furthermore, if our future growth and operating performance fail to meet investor or analyst expectations, or if we have future negative cash flow or losses resulting from our investment in acquiring customers or expanding our operations, this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our limited operating history and rapid growth makes evaluating our current business and future prospects difficult and may increase the risk of your investment.
Much of our growth has occurred in recent periods. Our limited operating history may make it difficult for you to evaluate our current business and our future prospects, as we continue to grow our business. Our ability to forecast our future operating results is subject to a number of uncertainties, including our ability to plan for and model future growth. We have encountered, and will continue to encounter, risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly evolving industries, as we continue to grow our business. If our assumptions regarding these uncertainties, which we use to plan our business, are incorrect or change in reaction to changes in our markets, or if we do not address these risks successfully, our operating and financial results could differ materially from our expectations, our business could suffer, and the trading price of our stock may decline. We intend to derive a substantial portion of our revenues from the sales of a number of products which are either in the late stages of development or began commercial shipments in late 2020. We continue to develop additional products which are scheduled to begin commercial shipments in 2021. There are no assurances that we will be able to secure future business with customers or that such products will begin commercial shipments on our planned timelines.
It is difficult to predict our future revenues and appropriately budget for our expenses, and we have limited insight into trends that may emerge and affect our business. If actual results differ from our estimates or we adjust our estimates in future periods, our operating results and financial position could be materially affected.
 
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Our operating results and financial condition may fluctuate from period to period.
Our operating results and financial condition fluctuate from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year and are likely to continue to vary due to a number of factors, many of which will not be within our control. Both our business and the additive manufacturing industry are changing and evolving rapidly, and our historical operating results may not be useful in predicting our future operating results. If our operating results do not meet the guidance that we provide to the marketplace or the expectations of securities analysts or investors, the market price of our Class A common stock will likely decline. Fluctuations in our operating results and financial condition may be due to a number of factors, including:

the degree of market acceptance of our products and services;

our ability to compete with competitors and new entrants into our markets;

the mix of products and services that we sell during any period;

the timing of our sales and deliveries of our products to customers;

the geographic distribution of our sales;

changes in our pricing policies or those of our competitors, including our response to price competition;

changes in the amount that we spend to develop and manufacture new products or technologies;

changes in the amounts that we spend to promote our products and services;

changes in the cost of satisfying our warranty obligations and servicing our installed customer base;

expenses and/or liabilities resulting from litigation;

delays between our expenditures to develop and market new or enhanced solutions and the generation of revenue from those solutions;

unforeseen liabilities or difficulties in integrating our acquisitions or newly acquired businesses;

disruptions to our information technology systems or our third-party contract manufacturers;

general economic and industry conditions that effect customer demand;

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our customers, suppliers, manufacturers and operations; and

changes in accounting rules and tax laws.
In addition, our revenues and operating results may fluctuate from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year due to our sales cycle and seasonality among our customers. Generally, our additive manufacturing solutions are subject to the adoption and capital expenditure cycles of our customers. As a result, we typically conduct a larger portion of our business during the first and fourth quarters of our fiscal year relative to the second and third quarters. Additionally, for our more complex solutions, which may require additional facilities investment, potential customers may spend a substantial amount of time performing internal assessments prior to making a purchase decision. This may cause us to devote significant effort in advance of a potential sale without any guarantee of receiving any related revenues. As a result, revenues and operating results for future periods are difficult to predict with any significant degree of certainty, which could lead to adverse effects on our inventory levels and overall financial condition.
Due to the foregoing factors, and the other risks discussed in this prospectus, you should not rely on quarter-over-quarter and year-over-year comparisons of our operating results as an indicator of our future performance.
We may require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available on acceptable terms, if at all.
We intend to continue to make investments to support our business growth and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges and opportunities, including the need to develop new features or
 
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enhance our products, improve our operating infrastructure or acquire complementary businesses and technologies. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds if our existing sources of cash and any funds generated from operations do not provide us with sufficient capital. If we raise additional funds through future issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of our Class A common stock. Any debt financing that we may secure in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. We may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when we require it, our ability to continue to support our business growth and to respond to business challenges and opportunities could be significantly impaired, and our business may be adversely affected.
Risks Related to Acquisitions
As part of our growth strategy, we intend to continue to acquire or make investments in other businesses, patents, technologies, products or services. Our efforts to do so, or our failure to do so successfully, could disrupt our business and have an adverse impact on our financial condition.
As part of our business strategy, we plan to acquire or invest in other companies, patents, technologies, products or services. To the extent we seek to grow our business through acquisitions, we may not be able to successfully identify attractive acquisition opportunities or consummate any such acquisitions if we cannot reach an agreement on commercially favorable terms, if we lack sufficient resources to finance the transaction on our own and cannot obtain financing at a reasonable cost or if regulatory authorities prevent such transaction from being consummated. The identification of potential targets, negotiation with targets and due diligence may divert management’s attention from their day-to-day responsibilities and require the incurrence of related costs. In addition, competition for acquisitions in the markets in which we operate during recent years has increased, and may continue to increase, which may result in an increase in the costs of acquisitions or cause us to refrain from making certain acquisitions. We may not be able to complete future acquisitions on favorable terms, if at all.
If we do complete future acquisitions, we cannot assure you that they will ultimately strengthen our competitive position or that they will be viewed positively by customers, financial markets or investors. Furthermore, future acquisitions could pose numerous additional risks to our operations, including:

diversion of management’s attention from their day-to-day responsibilities;

unanticipated costs or liabilities associated with the acquisition;

incurrence of acquisition-related costs, which would be recognized as a current period expense;

problems integrating the purchased business, products or technologies;

challenges in achieving strategic objectives, cost savings and other anticipated benefits;

inability to maintain relationships with key customers, suppliers, vendors and other third parties on which the purchased business relies;

the difficulty of incorporating acquired technology and rights into our platform and of maintaining quality and security standards consistent with our brand;

difficulty in maintaining controls, procedures and policies during the transition and integration;

challenges in integrating the new workforce and the potential loss of key employees, particularly those of the acquired business; and

use of substantial portions of our available cash or the incurrence of debt to consummate the acquisition.
If we proceed with a particular acquisition, we may have to use cash, issue new equity securities with dilutive effects on existing shareholders, incur indebtedness, assume contingent liabilities or amortize assets
 
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or expenses in a manner that might have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Acquisitions will also require us to record certain acquisition-related costs and other items as current period expenses, which would have the effect of reducing our reported earnings in the period in which an acquisition is consummated. In addition, we could also face unknown liabilities or write-offs due to our acquisitions, which could result in a significant charge to our earnings in the period in which they occur. We will also be required to record goodwill or other long-lived asset impairment charges (if any) in the periods in which they occur, which could result in a significant charge to our earnings in any such period.
Achieving the expected returns and synergies from future acquisitions will depend, in part, upon our ability to integrate the products and services, technology, administrative functions and personnel of these businesses into our product lines in an efficient and effective manner. We cannot assure you that we will be able to do so, that our acquired businesses will perform at levels and on the timelines anticipated by our management or that we will be able to obtain these synergies. In addition, acquired technologies and intellectual property may be rendered obsolete or uneconomical by our own or our competitors’ technological advances. Management resources may also be diverted from operating our existing businesses to certain acquisition integration challenges. If we are unable to successfully integrate acquired businesses, our anticipated revenues and profits may be lower. Our profit margins may also be lower, or diluted, following the acquisition of companies whose profit margins are less than those of our existing businesses.
We may experience difficulties in integrating the operations of acquired companies into our business and in realizing the expected benefits of these acquisitions.
Acquisition involve numerous risks, any of which could harm our business and negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations. The success of recent acquisitions will depend in part on our ability to realize the anticipated business opportunities from combining the operations of acquired companies with our business in an efficient and effective manner. These integration processes could take longer than anticipated and could result in the loss of key employees, the disruption of each company’s ongoing businesses, tax costs or inefficiencies, or inconsistencies in standards, controls, information technology systems, procedures and policies, any of which could adversely affect our ability to maintain relationships with customers, employees or other third parties, or our ability to achieve the anticipated benefits of the acquisitions, and could harm our financial performance. If we are unable to successfully or timely integrate the operations of acquired companies with our business, we may incur unanticipated liabilities and be unable to realize the revenue growth, synergies and other anticipated benefits resulting from the acquisitions, and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
We have incurred significant costs in connection with the recent acquisitions. The substantial majority of these costs are non-recurring acquisition expenses. These non-recurring costs and expenses are reflected in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information included elsewhere in this prospectus. We may incur additional costs in the integration of acquired companies, and may not achieve cost synergies and other benefits sufficient to offset the incremental costs of these acquisitions.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
We may experience significant delays in the design, production and launch of our additive manufacturing solutions, and we may be unable to successfully commercialize products on our planned timelines.
Several of our additive manufacturing solutions are still under development. There are often delays in the design, testing, manufacture and commercial release of new products, and any delay in the launch of our products could materially damage our brand, business, growth prospects, financial condition and operating results. Even if we successfully complete the design, testing and manufacture for one or all of our products under development, we may fail to develop a commercially successful product on the timeline we expect for a number of reasons, including:

misalignment between the products and customer needs;

lack of innovation of the product;

failure of the product to perform in accordance with the customer’s industry standards;
 
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ineffective distribution and marketing;

delay in obtaining any required regulatory approvals;

unexpected production costs; or

release of competitive products.
Our success in the market for the products we develop will depend largely on our ability to prove our products’ capabilities in a timely manner. Upon demonstration, our customers may not believe that our products and/or technology have the capabilities they were designed to have or that we believe they have. Furthermore, even if we do successfully demonstrate our products’ capabilities, potential customers may be more comfortable doing business with another larger and more established company or may take longer than expected to make the decision to order our products. Significant revenue from new product investments may not be achieved for a number of years, if at all. If the timing of our launch of new products and/or of our customers’ acceptance of such products is different than our assumptions, our revenue and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Additionally, we are building out parts-as-a-service offering for customers, which may present similar challenges to those outlined above with respect to the design, production, and launch of new additive manufacturing solutions. In particular, we may fail to develop a commercially successful offering if we are unable to meet customer needs or industry standards, if we fail to meet customer price expectations, or if our marketing and distribution strategy proves ineffective. If we are unsuccessful in establishing such an offering, sales of our additive manufacturing solutions and our overall operating results could suffer. To date we have not recognized any material revenues from the parts-as-a-service business model.
Our business activities may be disrupted due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic.
We face various risks and uncertainties related to the global outbreak of COVID-19. In recent months, the continued spread of COVID-19 has led to disruption and volatility in the global economy and capital markets, which increases the cost of capital and adversely impacts access to capital. Government-enforced travel bans and business closures around the world have significantly impacted our ability to sell, install and service our additive manufacturing systems at customers around the world. It has, and may continue to, disrupt our third-party contract manufacturers and supply chain. We currently anticipate customer payment delays for our products which could negatively impact our results of operations. We also expect some delays in installation of our products at customers’ facilities, which could lead to postponed revenue recognition for those transactions. Furthermore, if significant portions of our workforce are unable to work effectively, including because of illness, quarantines, government actions, facility closures, remote working or other restrictions in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, our operations will likely be adversely impacted.
If the COVID-19 pandemic continues for a prolonged duration, we or our customers may be unable to perform fully on our contracts, which will likely result in increases in costs and reduction in revenue. These cost increases may not be fully recoverable or adequately covered by insurance. The long-term effects of COVID-19 to the global economy and to us are difficult to assess or predict and may include a further decline in the market prices of our products, risks to employee health and safety, risks for the deployment of our products and services and reduced sales in geographic locations impacted. Any prolonged restrictive measures put in place in order to control COVID-19 or other adverse public health developments in any of our targeted markets may have a material and adverse effect on our business operations and results of operations.
Changes in our product mix may impact our gross margins and financial performance.
Our financial performance may be affected by the mix of products and services we sell during a given period. Our products are sold, and will continue to be sold, at different price points. Sales of certain of our products have, or are expected to have, higher gross margins than others. If our product mix shifts too far into lower gross margin products, and we are not able to sufficiently reduce the engineering, production and other costs associated with those products or substantially increase the sales of our higher gross margin products, our profitability could be reduced. Additionally, the introduction of new products or services may
 
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further heighten quarterly fluctuations in gross profit and gross profit margins due to manufacturing ramp-up and start-up costs. We may experience significant quarterly fluctuations in gross profit margins or operating income or loss due to the impact of the mix of products, channels or geographic areas in which we sell our products from period to period.
If we fail to meet our customers’ price expectations, demand for our products and product lines could be negatively impacted and our business and results of operations could suffer.
Demand for our product lines is sensitive to price. We believe our competitive pricing has been an important factor in our results to date. Therefore, changes in our pricing strategies can have a significant impact on our business and ability to generate revenue. Many factors, including our production and personnel costs and our competitors’ pricing and marketing strategies, can significantly impact our pricing strategies. If we fail to meet our customers’ price expectations in any given period, demand for our products and product lines could be negatively impacted and our business and results of operations could suffer.
We use, and plan to continue using, different pricing models for different products. For example, we plan to use a hardware-as-a-service annual subscription pricing model for certain new products. Such pricing models are still relatively new to some of our customers and may not be attractive to them, especially in regions where they are less common. If customers resist such pricing models, our revenue may be adversely affected, and we may need to restructure the way in which we charge customers for our products. To date, while we have accepted pre-orders for our Fiber solution with hardware-as-a-service annual subscription pricing, we have not recognized material revenue from such orders, or associated with our hardware-as-a-service annual subscription model in general.
Declines in the prices of our products and services, or in our volume of sales, together with our relatively inflexible cost structure, may adversely affect our financial results.
Our business is subject to price competition. Such price competition may adversely affect our results of operation, especially during periods of decreased demand. Decreased demand also adversely impacts the volume of our systems sales. If our business is not able to offset price reductions resulting from these pressures, or decreased volume of sales due to contractions in the market, by improved operating efficiencies and reduced expenditures, then our operating results will be adversely affected.
Certain of our operating costs are fixed and cannot readily be reduced, which diminishes the positive impact of our restructuring programs on our operating results. To the extent the demand for our products slows, or the additive manufacturing market contracts, we may be faced with excess manufacturing capacity and related costs that cannot readily be reduced, which will adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.
Our business model is predicated, in part, on building a customer base that will generate a recurring stream of revenues through the sale of our consumables and service contracts. If that recurring stream of revenues does not develop as expected, or if our business model changes as the industry evolves, our operating results may be adversely affected.
Our business model is dependent, in part, on our ability to maintain and increase sales of our proprietary consumables and service contracts as they generate recurring revenues. Existing and future customers of our systems may not purchase our consumables or related service contracts at the same rate at which customers currently purchase those consumables and services. In addition, our entry-level systems focused on low- volume production generally use a lower volume of consumables relative to our higher-end systems focused on high-volume production. If our current and future customers purchase a lower volume of our consumable materials or service contracts, or if our entry-level systems represent an increasing percentage of our future installed customer base, resulting overall in lower purchases of consumables and service contracts on average than our current installed customer base, our recurring revenue stream relative to our total revenues would be reduced and our operating results would be adversely affected.
If demand for our products does not grow as expected, or if market adoption of additive manufacturing does not continue to develop, or develops more slowly than expected, our revenues may stagnate or decline, and our business may be adversely affected.
The industrial manufacturing market, which today is dominated by conventional manufacturing processes that do not involve 3D printing technology, is undergoing a shift towards additive manufacturing.
 
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We may not be able to develop effective strategies to raise awareness among potential customers of the benefits of additive manufacturing technologies or our products may not address the specific needs or provide the level of functionality required by potential customers to encourage the continuation of this shift towards additive manufacturing. If additive manufacturing technology does not continue to gain broader market acceptance as an alternative to conventional manufacturing processes, or if the marketplace adopts additive manufacturing technologies that differ from our technologies, we may not be able to increase or sustain the level of sales of our products, and our operating results would be adversely affected as a result.
Reservations for our Production System P-50 solution may not convert to purchase orders.
Our Production System P-50 solution is in the late stages of development, and while select early customers are operational with this solution, commercial shipments are not scheduled to begin until the second half of 2021 and may occur later or not at all. As a result, we have accepted reservations for the Production System P-50, most of which are accompanied by a financial deposit. Given the anticipated lead times between reservations and the date of delivery of the Production System P-50s, there is a risk that customers who place reservations may ultimately decide not to convert such reservations into purchase orders and take delivery of their reserved Production System P-50 due to potential changes in customer preferences, competitive developments or other factors. As a result, no assurance can be made that reservations will result in the purchase of our Production System P-50s, and any such failure to convert these reservations could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Defects in new products or in enhancements to our existing products that give rise to product returns or warranty or other claims could result in material expenses, diversion of management time and attention and damage to our reputation.
Our additive manufacturing solutions are complex and may contain undetected defects or errors when first introduced or as enhancements are released that, despite testing, are not discovered until after a machine has been used. This could result in delayed market acceptance of those products or claims from resellers, customers or others, which may result in litigation, increased end user warranty, support and repair or replacement costs, damage to our reputation and business, or significant costs and diversion of support and engineering personnel to correct the defect or error. We may from time to time become subject to warranty or product liability claims related to product quality issues that could lead us to incur significant expenses.
We attempt to include provisions in our agreements with customers that are designed to limit our exposure to potential liability for damages arising from defects or errors in our products. However, it is possible that these limitations may not be effective as a result of unfavorable judicial decisions or laws enacted in the future.
The sale and support of our products entails the risk of product liability claims. Any product liability claim brought against us, regardless of its merit, could result in material expense, diversion of management time and attention, damage to our business and reputation and brand, and cause us to fail to retain existing customers or to fail to attract new customers.
Our operations could suffer if we are unable to attract and retain key management or other key employees.
We believe our success has depended, and continues to depend, on the efforts and talents of our senior management and other key personnel, including, in particular, our co-founder, chief executive officer, and chairman, Ric Fulop. Our executive team is critical to the management of our business and operations, as well as to the development of our strategy. Members of our senior management team may resign at any time. Our Chief Financial Officer resigned effective as of February 12, 2021 and we have appointed a new Chief Financial Officer. The loss of the services of any members of our senior management team, especially Mr. Fulop, could delay or prevent the successful implementation of our strategy or our commercialization of new applications for our systems or other products, or could otherwise adversely affect our ability to manage our company effectively and carry out our business plan. There is no assurance that if any senior executive leaves in the future, we will be able to rapidly replace him or her and transition smoothly towards his or her successor, without any adverse impact on our operations.
 
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To support the continued growth of our business, we must also effectively recruit, hire, integrate, develop, motivate and retain additional new employees. High demand exists for senior management and other key personnel (including scientific, technical, engineering, financial and sales personnel) in the additive manufacturing industry, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to retain our current key personnel. We experience intense competition for qualified personnel. While we intend to continue to provide competitive compensation packages to attract and retain key personnel, some of our competitors for these employees have greater resources and more experience, making it difficult for us to compete successfully for key personnel. Moreover, new employees may not become as productive as we expect since we may face challenges in adequately integrating them into our workforce and culture. If we cannot attract and retain sufficiently qualified technical employees for our research product development activities, as well as experienced sales and marketing personnel, we may be unable to develop and commercialize new products or new applications for existing products. Furthermore, possible shortages of key personnel, including engineers, in the regions surrounding our Boston facility could require us to pay more to hire and retain key personnel, thereby increasing our costs. Since March 2020, we have had many employees working remotely to protect the health and safety of our employees, contractors, customers and visitors. We also shifted customer, industry and other stakeholder events to virtual-only experiences, and may similarly alter, postpone or cancel other events in the future. Given our limited history with remote operations, the long-term impacts are uncertain.
All of our U.S. employees are at-will employees, meaning that they may terminate their employment relationship with us at any time, and their knowledge of our business and industry would be extremely difficult to replace. We generally enter into non-competition agreements with our employees. These agreements prohibit our employees from competing directly with us or working for our competitors or clients while they work for us, and in some cases, for a limited period after they cease working for us. We may be unable to enforce these agreements under the laws of the jurisdictions in which our employees work, and it may be difficult for us to restrict our competitors from benefiting from the expertise that our former employees or consultants developed while working for us. If we cannot demonstrate that our legally protectable interests will be harmed, we may be unable to prevent our competitors from benefiting from the expertise of our former employees or consultants and our ability to remain competitive may be diminished.
If we fail to grow our business as anticipated, our net sales, gross margin and operating margin will be adversely affected. If we grow as anticipated but fail to manage our growth and expand our operations accordingly, our business may be harmed and our results of operation may suffer.
Over the past several years, we have experienced rapid growth, and we are attempting to continue to grow our business substantially. To this end, we have made, and expect to continue to make, significant investments in our business, including investments in our infrastructure, technology, marketing and sales efforts. These investments include dedicated facilities expansion and increased staffing, both domestic and international. If our business does not generate the level of revenue required to support our investment, our net sales and profitability will be adversely affected.
Our ability to effectively manage our anticipated growth and expansion of our operations will also require us to enhance our operational, financial and management controls and infrastructure, human resources policies and reporting systems. These enhancements and improvements will require significant capital expenditures, investments in additional headcount and other operating expenditures and allocation of valuable management and employee resources. Our future financial performance and our ability to execute on our business plan will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage any future growth and expansion. There are no guarantees we will be able to do so in an efficient or timely manner, or at all.
We may experience significant delays or obstacles to realizing the success of our newly-launched Desktop Health business line.
In March 2021, we launched our Desktop Health business line, which aims to leverage our proprietary additive manufacturing technologies and materials to grow the market for existing applications in the healthcare and dental markets and identify, develop and/or commercialize future solutions for personalized patient care spanning dentistry, orthodontics, dermatology, orthopedics, cardiology, plastic surgery and printed regenerative tissues and grafts. This business operates in a highly competitive space which may make
 
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it difficult for us to implement business plans and expectations and identify and realize opportunities. In addition, this business and its technology, products, materials and applications may be subject to strict regulatory requirements in the United States and other countries. The success of this business will also depend on our ability to attract, hire and retain qualified personnel, establish sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure, and establish and maintain supply and manufacturing relationships.
Our existing and planned global operations subject us to a variety of risks and uncertainties that could adversely affect our business and operating results. Our business is subject to risks associated with selling machines and other products in non-United States locations.
Our products and services are distributed in more than 60 countries around the world, and we derive a substantial percentage of our sales from these international markets. In 2020, we derived approximately 60% of our revenues from countries outside the United States. Accordingly, we face significant operational risks from doing business internationally.
Our operating results may be affected by volatility in currency exchange rates and our ability to effectively manage our currency transaction risks. We incur currency transaction risks if we were to enter into either a purchase or a sale transaction using a different currency from the currency in which we report revenues. In such cases we may suffer an exchange loss because we do not currently engage in currency swaps or other currency hedging strategies to address this risk. As we realize our strategy to expand internationally, our exposure to currency risks may increase. Given the volatility of exchange rates, we can give no assurance that we will be able to effectively manage our currency transaction risks or that any volatility in currency exchange rates will not have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Other risks and uncertainties we face from our global operations include:

difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations;

limited protection for the enforcement of contract and intellectual property rights in certain countries where we may sell our products or work with suppliers or other third parties;

potentially longer sales and payment cycles and potentially greater difficulties in collecting accounts receivable;

costs and difficulties of customizing products for foreign countries;

challenges in providing solutions across a significant distance, in different languages and among different cultures;

laws and business practices favoring local competition;

being subject to a wide variety of complex foreign laws, treaties and regulations and adjusting to any unexpected changes in such laws, treaties and regulations;

specific and significant regulations, including the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, which imposes compliance obligations on companies who possess and use data of EU residents;

uncertainty and resultant political, financial and market instability arising from the United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union;

compliance with U.S. laws affecting activities of U.S. companies abroad, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act;

tariffs, trade barriers and other regulatory or contractual limitations on our ability to sell or develop our products in certain foreign markets;

operating in countries with a higher incidence of corruption and fraudulent business practices;

changes in regulatory requirements, including export controls, tariffs and embargoes, other trade restrictions, competition, corporate practices and data privacy concerns;

potential adverse tax consequences arising from global operations;
 
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seasonal reductions in business activity in certain parts of the world, particularly during the summer months in Europe and at year end globally;

rapid changes in government, economic and political policies and conditions; and

political or civil unrest or instability, terrorism or epidemics and other similar outbreaks or events.
In addition, additive manufacturing has been identified by the U.S. government as an emerging technology and is currently being further evaluated for national security impacts. We expect additional regulatory changes to be implemented that will result in increased and/or new export controls related to 3D printing technologies, components and related materials and software. These changes, if implemented, may result in our being required to obtain additional approvals and/or licenses to sell 3D printers in the global market.
Our failure to effectively manage the risks and uncertainties associated with our global operations could limit the future growth of our business and adversely affect our business and operating results.
In the future, some of our arrangements for additive manufacturing solutions may contain customer-specific provisions that may impact the period in which we recognize the related revenues under GAAP.
Some customers that purchase additive manufacturing solutions from us may require specific, customized factors relating to their intended use of the solution or the installation of the product in the customers’ facilities. These specific, customized factors are occasionally required by the customers to be included in our commercial agreements relating to the purchases. As a result, our responsiveness to our customers’ specific requirements has the potential to impact the period in which we recognize the revenue relating to that additive manufacturing system sale.
Similarly, some of our customers must build or prepare facilities to install a subset of our additive manufacturing solutions, and the completion of such projects can be unpredictable, which can impact the period in which we recognize the revenue relating to that additive manufacturing solution sale.
We rely on our information technology systems to manage numerous aspects of our business and a disruption of these systems could adversely affect our business.
We rely on our information technology systems to manage numerous aspects of our business, including to efficiently purchase products from our suppliers, provide procurement and logistic services, ship products to our customers, manage our accounting and financial functions, including our internal controls, and maintain our research and development data. Our information technology systems are an essential component of our business and any disruption could significantly limit our ability to manage and operate our business efficiently. A failure of our information technology systems to perform properly could disrupt our supply chain, product development and customer experience, which may lead to increased overhead costs and decreased sales and have an adverse effect on our reputation and our financial condition. In addition, during the COVID-19 pandemic, a substantial portion of our employees have conducted work remotely, making us more dependent on potentially vulnerable communications systems and making us more vulnerable to cyberattacks.
Although we take steps and incur significant costs to secure our information technology systems, including our computer systems, intranet and internet sites, email and other telecommunications and data networks, our security measures may not be effective and our systems may be vulnerable to damage or interruption. Disruption to our information technology systems could result from power outages, computer and telecommunications failures, computer viruses, cyber-attack or other security breaches, catastrophic events such as fires, floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes, acts of war, terrorism and usage errors by our employees.
Our reputation and financial condition could be adversely affected if, as a result of a significant cyber- event or otherwise:

our operations are disrupted or shut down;

our confidential, proprietary information is stolen or disclosed;
 
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we incur costs or are required to pay fines in connection with stolen customer, employee or other confidential information;

we must dedicate significant resources to system repairs or increase cyber security protection; or

we otherwise incur significant litigation or other costs.
If our computer systems are damaged or cease to function properly, or, if we do not replace or upgrade certain systems, we may incur substantial costs to repair or replace them and may experience an interruption of our normal business activities or loss of critical data. Any such disruption could adversely affect our reputation and financial condition.
We also rely on information technology systems maintained by third parties, including third-party cloud computing services and the computer systems of our suppliers for both our internal operations and our customer-facing infrastructure related to our additive manufacturing solutions. These systems are also vulnerable to the types of interruption and damage described above but we have less ability to take measures to protect against such disruptions or to resolve them if they were to occur. Information technology problems faced by third parties on which we rely could adversely impact our business and financial condition as well as negatively impact our brand reputation.
Our current levels of insurance may not be adequate for our potential liabilities.
We maintain insurance to cover our potential exposure for most claims and losses, including potential product and non-product related claims, lawsuits and administrative proceedings seeking damages or other remedies arising out of our commercial operations. However, our insurance coverage is subject to various exclusions, self-retentions and deductibles. We may be faced with types of liabilities that are not covered under our insurance policies, such as environmental contamination or terrorist attacks, or that exceed our policy limits. Even a partially uninsured claim of significant size, if successful, could have an adverse effect on our financial condition.
In addition, we may not be able to continue to obtain insurance coverage on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, and our existing policies may be cancelled or otherwise terminated by the insurer. Maintaining adequate insurance and successfully accessing insurance coverage that may be due for a claim can require a significant amount of our management’s time, and we may be forced to spend a substantial amount of money in that process.
Global economic, political and social conditions and uncertainties in the markets that we serve may adversely impact our business.
Our performance depends on the financial health and strength of our customers, which in turn is dependent on the economic conditions of the markets in which we and our customers operate. The recent declines in the global economy, difficulties in the financial services sector and credit markets, continuing geopolitical uncertainties and other macroeconomic factors all affect the spending behavior of potential customers. The economic uncertainty in Europe, the United States, India, China and other countries may cause end-users to further delay or reduce technology purchases.
We also face risks from financial difficulties or other uncertainties experienced by our suppliers, distributors or other third parties on which we rely. If third parties are unable to supply us with required materials or components or otherwise assist us in operating our business, our business could be harmed.
For example, the possibility of an ongoing trade war between the United States and China may impact the cost of raw materials, finished products or components used in our products and our ability to sell our products in China. Other changes in U.S. social, political, regulatory and economic conditions or in laws and policies governing foreign trade, manufacturing, development and investment could also adversely affect our business. In addition, the ongoing negotiations about transitioning the United Kingdom from the European Union following its formal exit on January 31, 2020 may result in the imposition of tariffs that could have an adverse impact on our results of operation. Additionally, there also is a risk that other countries may decide to leave the European Union. This uncertainty surrounding this transition not only potentially affects our business in the United Kingdom and the European Union, but also may have an effect on global
 
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economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In extreme cases, we could experience interruptions in production due to the processing of customs formalities or reduced customer spending in the wake of weaker economic performance. If global economic conditions remain volatile for a prolonged period or if European economies experience further disruptions, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
In connection with the Business Combination, we identified material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting. Our internal controls over financial reporting currently do not meet all of the standards contemplated by Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and failure to achieve and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes- Oxley Act could impair our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations and have a material adverse effect on our business.
Following the Business Combination, our management has significant requirements for enhanced financial reporting and internal controls as a public company. The process of designing and implementing effective internal controls is a continuous effort that will require us to anticipate and react to changes in our business and the economic and regulatory environments and to expend significant resources to maintain a system of internal controls that is adequate to satisfy our reporting obligations as a public company. If we are unable to establish or maintain appropriate internal financial reporting controls and procedures, it could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations on a timely basis or result in material misstatements in our consolidated financial statements, which could harm our operating results. In addition, we will be required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. This assessment will need to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. The rules governing the standards that must be met for our management to assess our internal control over financial reporting are complex and require significant documentation, testing, and possible remediation. Testing and maintaining internal controls may divert management’s attention from other matters that are important to our business. Our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting on an annual basis. However, while we remain an emerging growth company, we will not be required to include an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm. If we are not able to complete our initial assessment of our internal controls and otherwise implement the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to certify as to the adequacy of our internal controls over financial reporting.
In addition to our results determined in accordance with GAAP, we believe certain non-GAAP measures may be useful in evaluating our operating performance. We present certain non-GAAP financial measures in this prospectus and intend to continue to present certain non-GAAP financial measures in future filings with the SEC and other public statements. Any failure to accurately report and present our non- GAAP financial measures could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial and other information, which would likely have a negative effect on the trading price of our Class A common stock.
Matters impacting our internal controls may cause us to be unable to report our financial information on a timely basis and thereby subject us to adverse regulatory consequences, including sanctions by the SEC or violations of applicable NYSE listing rules, which may result in a breach of the covenants under existing or future financing arrangements. There also could be a negative reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of investor confidence in us and the reliability of our financial statements. Confidence in the reliability of our financial statements also could suffer if we or our independent registered public accounting firm continue to report a material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting. This could materially adversely affect us and lead to a decline in the market price of our Class A common stock.
In connection with the Business Combination, our management and auditors determined that material weaknesses existed in our internal control over financial reporting due to the fact that we had not completed an annual or quarterly close under a timeline that would be compatible with public company filing deadlines, and with our limited accounting department personnel, this may not be achievable. A material weakness is a
 
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deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. While we have instituted plans to remediate the issue described above and continue to take remediation steps, including hiring additional personnel, including a vice president of accounting with public company experience, we continued to have a limited number of personnel with the level of GAAP accounting knowledge, specifically related to complex accounting transactions, commensurate with our financial reporting requirements.
Although we believe the hiring of additional accounting resources, implementation of additional reviews and processes requiring timely account reconciliations and analysis and implementation of processes and controls to better identify and manage segregation of duties will remediate the material weakness with respect to insufficient personnel, there can be no assurance that the material weakness will be remediated on a timely basis or at all, or that additional material weaknesses will not be identified in the future. If we are unable to remediate the material weakness, our ability to record, process, and report financial information accurately, and to prepare financial statements within the time periods specified by the rules and forms of the SEC, could be adversely affected which, in turn, to may adversely affect our reputation and business and the market price of our Class A common stock.
The additive manufacturing industry in which we operate is characterized by rapid technological change, which requires us to continue to develop new products and innovations to meet constantly evolving customer demands and which could adversely affect market adoption of our products.
Our revenues are derived from the sale of additive manufacturing systems and related consumables and services. We have encountered and will continue to encounter challenges experienced by growing companies in a market subject to rapid innovation and technological change. While we intend to invest substantial resources to remain on the forefront of technological development, continuing advances in additive manufacturing technology, changes in customer requirements and preferences and the emergence of new standards, regulations and certifications could adversely affect adoption of our products either generally or for particular applications. Our ability to compete in the additive manufacturing market depends, in large part, on our success in developing and introducing new additive manufacturing systems and technology, in improving our existing products and technology and qualifying new materials which our systems can support. We believe that we must continuously enhance and expand the functionality and features of our products and technologies in order to remain competitive. However, we may not be able to:

develop cost effective new products and technologies that address the increasingly complex needs of prospective customers;

enhance our existing products and technologies;

respond to technological advances and emerging industry standards and certifications on a cost-effective and timely basis;

adequately protect our intellectual property as we develop new products and technologies;

identify the appropriate technology or product to which to devote our resources; or

ensure the availability of cash resources to fund research and development.
Even if we successfully introduce new additive manufacturing products and technologies and enhance our existing products and technologies, it is possible that these will eventually supplant our existing products or that our competitors will develop new products and technologies that will replace our own. As a result, any of our products may be rendered obsolete or uneconomical by our or our competitors’ technological advances, leading to a loss in market share, decline in revenue and adverse effects to our business and prospects.
The additive manufacturing industry is competitive. We expect to face increasing competition in many aspects of our business, which could cause our operating results to suffer.
The additive manufacturing industry in which we operate is fragmented and competitive. We compete for customers with a wide variety of producers of additive manufacturing and/or 3D printing equipment that creates 3D objects and end-use parts, as well as with providers of materials and services for this equipment.
 
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Some of our existing and potential competitors are researching, designing, developing and marketing other types of products and services that may render our existing or future products obsolete, uneconomical or less competitive. Existing and potential competitors may also have substantially greater financial, technical, marketing and sales, manufacturing, distribution and other resources than we do, including name recognition, as well as experience and expertise in intellectual property rights and operating within certain international markets, any of which may enable them to compete effectively against us. For example, a number of companies that have substantial resources have announced that they are beginning production of 3D printing systems, which will further enhance the competition we face.
Future competition may arise from the development of allied or related techniques for equipment, materials and services that are not encompassed by our patents, from the issuance of patents to other companies that may inhibit our ability to develop certain products and from improvements to existing technologies.
We intend to continue to follow a strategy of continuing product development and distribution network expansion to enhance our competitive position to the extent practicable. But we cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain our current position or continue to compete successfully against current and future sources of competition. If we do not keep pace with technological change and introduce new products and technologies, demand for our products may decline, and our operating results may suffer.
Because the additive manufacturing market is rapidly evolving, forecasts of market growth in this prospectus may not be accurate.
Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts included in this prospectus are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may not prove to be accurate. The forecasts and estimates in this prospectus relating to the expected size and growth of the markets for additive manufacturing technology and other markets in which we participate may prove to be inaccurate. Even if these markets experience the forecasted growth described in this prospectus, we may not grow our business at similar rates, or at all. Our future growth is subject to many factors, including market adoption of our products, which is subject to many risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, the forecasts and estimates of market size and growth described in this prospectus, including our estimates that the size of the total addressable market is expected to be approximately $146 billion in 2030, should not be taken as indicative of our future growth. In addition, these forecasts do not consider the impact of the current global COVID-19 pandemic, and we cannot assure you that these forecasts will not be materially and adversely affected as a result.
Risks Related to Third Parties
We could be subject to personal injury, property damage, product liability, warranty and other claims involving allegedly defective products that we supply.
The products we supply are sometimes used in potentially hazardous or critical applications, such as the assembled parts of an aircraft, medical device or automobile, that could result in death, personal injury, property damage, loss of production, punitive damages and consequential damages. While we have not experienced any such claims to date, actual or claimed defects in the products we supply could result in our being named as a defendant in lawsuits asserting potentially large claims.
We attempt to include legal provisions in our agreements with customers that are designed to limit our exposure to potential liability for damages arising from defects or errors in our products. However, it is possible that these limitations may not be effective as a result of unfavorable judicial decisions or laws enacted in the future. Any such lawsuit, regardless of merit, could result in material expense, diversion of management time and efforts and damage to our reputation, and could cause us to fail to retain or attract customers, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
We could face liability if our additive manufacturing solutions are used by our customers to print dangerous objects.
Customers may use our additive manufacturing systems to print parts that could be used in a harmful way or could otherwise be dangerous. For example, there have been news reports that 3D printers were used
 
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to print guns or other weapons. We have little, if any, control over what objects our customers print using our products, and it may be difficult, if not impossible, for us to monitor and prevent customers from printing weapons with our products. While we have never printed weapons on any printers in our offices, there can be no assurance that we will not be held liable if someone were injured or killed by a weapon printed by a customer using one of our products.
We depend on our network of resellers and our business could be adversely affected if they do not perform as expected.
We rely heavily on our global network of resellers to sell our products and to provide installation and support services to customers in their respective geographic regions. These resellers may not be as effective in selling our products or installing and supporting our customers as we expect. Further, our contracts with our resellers provide for termination for convenience, and if our contracts with a significant number of resellers, or with the most effective resellers, were to terminate or if they would otherwise fail or refuse to sell certain of our products, we may not be able to find replacements that are as qualified or as successful in a timely manner, if at all. In addition, if our resellers do not perform as anticipated, or if we are unable to secure qualified and successful resellers, our sales will suffer, which would have an adverse effect on our revenues and operating results. Because we also depend upon our resellers to provide installation and support services for products, if our reseller relationship were terminated or limited to certain products, we may face disruption in providing support for our customers, which would adversely affect our reputation and our results of operations. Any failure to offer high-quality technical support services may adversely affect our relationships with our customers and adversely affect our financial results.
Additionally, a default by one or more resellers that have a significant receivables balance could have an adverse financial impact on our financial results. We have reviewed our policies that govern credit and collections and will continue to monitor them in light of current payment status and economic conditions. In addition, we try to reduce the credit exposures of our accounts receivable by instituting credit limits and having credit insurance. However, there can be no assurance that our efforts to identify potential credit risks will be successful. Our inability to timely identify resellers that are credit risks could result in defaults at a time when such resellers have high accounts receivable balances with us. Any such default would result in a significant charge against our earnings and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We depend on a limited number of third-party contract manufacturers for substantially all of our manufacturing needs. If these third-party manufacturers experience any delay, disruption or quality control problems in their operations, including due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we could lose market share and our brand may suffer.
We depend on third-party contract manufacturers for the production of several our additive manufacturing systems. While there are several potential manufacturers for most of these products, several of our products are manufactured, assembled, tested and generally packaged by a limited number of third-party manufacturers. In most cases, we rely on these manufacturers to procure components and, in some cases, subcontract engineering work. Our reliance on a limited number of contract manufacturers involves a number of risks, including:

unexpected increases in manufacturing and repair costs;

inability to control the quality and reliability of finished products;

inability to control delivery schedules;

potential liability for expenses incurred by third-party contract manufacturers in reliance on our forecasts that later prove to be inaccurate;

potential lack of adequate capacity to manufacture all or a part of the products we require; and

potential labor unrest affecting the ability of the third-party manufacturers to produce our products.
If any of our third-party contract manufacturers experience a delay, disruption or quality control problems in their operations, including due to the COVID-19 pandemic, or if a primary third-party contract manufacturer does not renew its agreement with us, our operations could be significantly disrupted,
 
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and our product shipments could be delayed. Qualifying a new manufacturer and commencing volume production is expensive and time consuming.
Ensuring that a contract manufacturer is qualified to manufacture our products to our standards is time consuming. In addition, there is no assurance that a contract manufacturer can scale its production of our products at the volumes and in the quality that we require. If a contract manufacturer is unable to do these things, we may have to move production for the products to a new or existing third-party manufacturer, which would take significant effort and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
As we contemplate moving manufacturing into different jurisdictions, we may be subject to additional significant challenges in ensuring that quality, processes, and costs, among other issues, are consistent with our expectations. For example, while we expect our third-party contract manufacturers to be responsible for penalties assessed on us because of excessive failures of the products, there is no assurance that we will be able to collect such reimbursements from these manufacturers, which causes us to take on additional risk for potential failures of our products.
In addition, because we use a limited number of third-party contract manufacturers, increases in the prices charged may have an adverse effect on our results of operations, as we may be unable to find a contract manufacturer who can supply us at a lower price. As a result, the loss of a limited source supplier could adversely affect our relationships with our customers and our results of operations and financial condition.
All of our products must satisfy safety and regulatory standards and some of our products must also receive government certifications. Our third-party contract manufacturers are primarily responsible for conducting the tests that support our applications for most regulatory approvals for our products. If our third-party contract manufacturers fail to timely and accurately conduct these tests, we may be unable to obtain the necessary domestic or foreign regulatory approvals or certifications to sell our products in certain jurisdictions. As a result, we would be unable to sell our products and our sales and profitability could be reduced, our relationships with our sales channel could be harmed and our reputation and brand would suffer.
If our suppliers become unavailable or inadequate, our customer relationships, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.
We acquire certain of our materials, which are critical to the ongoing operation and future growth of our business, from several third parties. Generally, our third-party contract manufacturers contract directly with component suppliers and we rely on our contract manufacturers to manage their supply chains. If one of our contract manufacturers has a supply chain disruption, or our relationship with our contract manufacturer terminates, we could experience delays. We also source some materials directly from suppliers. While most manufacturing equipment and materials for our products are available from multiple suppliers, certain of those items are only available from limited sources. Should any of these suppliers become unavailable or inadequate, or impose terms unacceptable to us, such as increased pricing terms, we could be required to spend a significant amount of time and expense to develop alternate sources of supply, and we may not be successful in doing so on terms acceptable to us, or at all. As a result, the loss of a limited source supplier could adversely affect our relationship with our customers as well as our results of operations and financial condition.
Our third-party contract manufacturers’ facilities, and our suppliers’ and our customers’ facilities, are vulnerable to disruption due to natural or other disasters, strikes and other events beyond our control.
A major earthquake, fire, tsunami, hurricane, cyclone or other disaster, such as a pandemic, major flood, seasonal storms, nuclear event or terrorist attack affecting our facilities or the areas in which they are located, or affecting those of our customers or third-party manufacturers or suppliers, could significantly disrupt our or their operations and delay or prevent product shipment or installation during the time required to repair, rebuild or replace our or their damaged manufacturing facilities. These delays could be lengthy and costly. If any of our third-party contract manufacturers’, suppliers’ or customers’ facilities are negatively impacted by such a disaster, production, shipment and installation of our 3D printing machines could be delayed, which can impact the period in which we recognize the revenue related to that 3D printing machine sale. Additionally, customers may delay purchases of our products until operations return to normal. Even
 
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if we are able to respond quickly to a disaster, the continued effects of the disaster could create uncertainty in our business operations. In addition, concerns about terrorism, the effects of a terrorist attack, political turmoil, labor strikes, war or the outbreak of epidemic diseases (including the outbreak of COVID-19) could have a negative effect on our operations and sales.
Risks Related to Compliance Matters
Failure of our global operations to comply with anti-corruption laws and various trade restrictions, such as sanctions and export controls, could have an adverse effect on our business.
We operate in a number of countries throughout the world, including countries known to have a reputation for corruption. Doing business on a global basis requires us to comply with anti-corruption laws and regulations imposed by governments around the world with jurisdiction over our operations, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, as well as the laws of the countries where we do business. We are also subject to various trade restrictions, including trade and economic sanctions and export controls, imposed by governments around the world with jurisdiction over our operations. For example, in accordance with trade sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control and the U.S. Department of Commerce, we are prohibited from engaging in transactions involving certain persons and certain designated countries or territories, including Cuba, Iran, Syria, North Korea and the Crimea Region of Ukraine. In addition, our products are subject to export regulations that can involve significant compliance time and may add additional overhead cost to our products. In recent years the U.S. government has had a renewed focus on export matters. For example, the Export Control Reform Act of 2018 and regulatory guidance have imposed additional controls, and may result in the imposition of further additional controls, on the export of certain “emerging and foundational technologies.” Our current and future products may be subject to these heightened regulations, which could increase our compliance costs.
We are committed to doing business in accordance with applicable anti-corruption laws and regulations and with applicable trade restrictions. We are subject, however, to the risk that our affiliated entities or our and our affiliates’ respective officers, directors, employees and agents (including distributors of our products) may take action determined to be in violation of such laws and regulations. Any violation by any of these persons could result in substantial fines, sanctions, civil and/or criminal penalties, or curtailment of operations in certain jurisdictions, and might adversely affect our operating results. In addition, actual or alleged violations could damage our reputation and ability to do business.
We are subject to environmental, health and safety laws and regulations related to our operations and the use of our additive manufacturing systems and consumable materials, which could subject us to compliance costs and/or potential liability in the event of non-compliance.
We are subject to domestic and foreign environmental laws and regulations governing our operations, including, but not limited to, emissions into the air and water and the use, handling, disposal and remediation of hazardous substances. A certain risk of environmental liability is inherent in our production activities. These laws and regulations govern, among other things, the generation, use, storage, registration, handling and disposal of chemicals and waste materials, the presence of specified substances in electrical products, the emission and discharge of hazardous materials into the ground, air or water, the cleanup of contaminated sites, including any contamination that results from spills due to our failure to properly dispose of chemicals and other waste materials and the health and safety of our employees. Under these laws, regulations and requirements, we could also be subject to liability for improper disposal of chemicals and waste materials, including those resulting from the use of our systems and accompanying materials by end-users. Accidents or other incidents that occur at our facilities or involve our personnel or operations could result in claims for damages against us. In the event we are found to be financially responsible, as a result of environmental or other laws or by court order, for environmental damages alleged to have been caused by us or occurring on our premises, we could be required to pay substantial monetary damages or undertake expensive remedial obligations. If our operations fail to comply with such laws or regulations, we may be subject to fines and other civil, administrative or criminal sanctions, including the revocation of permits and licenses necessary to continue our business activities. In addition, we may be required to pay damages or civil judgments in respect of third-party claims, including those relating to personal injury (including exposure to hazardous substances that we generate, use, store, handle, transport, manufacture or dispose of), property damage or
 
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contribution claims. Some environmental laws allow for strict, joint and several liabilities for remediation costs, regardless of fault. We may be identified as a potentially responsible party under such laws. The amount of any costs, including fines or damages payments that we might incur under such circumstances could substantially exceed any insurance we have to cover such losses. Any of these events, alone or in combination, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and could adversely affect our reputation.
The export of our products internationally from our production facilities subjects us to environmental laws and regulations concerning the import and export of chemicals and hazardous substances such as the United States Toxic Substances Control Act and the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances. These laws and regulations require the testing and registration of some chemicals that we ship along with, or that form a part of, our systems and other products. If we fail to comply with these or similar laws and regulations, we may be required to make significant expenditures to reformulate the chemicals that we use in our products and materials or incur costs to register such chemicals to gain and/or regain compliance. Additionally, we could be subject to significant fines or other civil and criminal penalties should we not achieve such compliance.
The cost of complying with current and future environmental, health and safety laws applicable to our operations, or the liabilities arising from past releases of, or exposure to, hazardous substances, may result in future expenditures. Any of these developments, alone or in combination, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Aspects of our business are subject to privacy, data use and data security regulations, which could increase our costs.
We collect personally identifiable information from our employees, prospects, and our customers. Privacy and security laws and regulations may limit the use and disclosure of certain information and require us to adopt certain cybersecurity and data handling practices that may affect our ability to effectively market our services to current, past or prospective customers. We must comply with privacy laws in the United States, Europe and elsewhere, including GDPR in the European Union, which became effective May 25, 2018, and the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, which was enacted on June 28, 2018 and became effective on January 1, 2020. These laws create new individual privacy rights and impose increased obligations, including disclosure obligations, on companies handling personal data. In many jurisdictions, consumers must be notified in the event of a data security breach, and such notification requirements continue to increase in scope and cost. Privacy and security laws and regulations may limit the use and disclosure of certain information and require us to adopt certain cybersecurity and data handling practices that may affect our ability to effectively market our services to current, past or prospective customers. While we have invested in, and intend to continue to invest in, resources to comply with these standards, we may not be successful in doing so, and any such failure could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and reputation.
As privacy, data use and data security laws are interpreted and applied, compliance costs may increase, particularly in the context of ensuring that adequate data protection and data transfer mechanisms are in place. In recent years, there has been increasing regulatory enforcement and litigation activity in this area in the United States, Germany and in various other countries in which we operate.
Risks Related to Intellectual Property
Third-party lawsuits and assertions to which we are subject alleging our infringement of patents, trade secrets or other intellectual property rights may have a significant adverse effect on our financial condition.
Third parties may own issued patents and pending patent applications that exist in fields relevant to additive manufacturing. Some of these third parties may assert that we are employing their proprietary technology without authorization. There may be third-party patents or patent applications with claims related to additive manufacturing. Because patent applications can take many years to issue, there may be currently pending patent applications which may later result in issued patents that our additive technologies may infringe. In addition, third parties may obtain patents in the future and claim that our technologies infringe upon these patents. Any third-party lawsuits or other assertion to which we are subject alleging our
 
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infringement of patents, trade secrets or other intellectual property rights may have a significant adverse effect on our financial condition.
We may incur substantial costs enforcing and defending our intellectual property rights.
We may incur substantial expense and costs in protecting, enforcing and defending our intellectual property rights against third parties. Intellectual property disputes may be costly and can be disruptive to our business operations by diverting attention and energies of management and key technical personnel and by increasing our costs of doing business. Third-party intellectual property claims asserted against us could subject us to significant liabilities, require us to enter into royalty and licensing arrangements on unfavorable terms, prevent us from assembling or licensing certain of our products, subject us to injunctions restricting our sale of products, cause severe disruptions to our operations or the marketplaces in which we compete or require us to satisfy indemnification commitments with our customers, including contractual provisions under various license arrangements. In addition, we may incur significant costs in acquiring the necessary third-party intellectual property rights for use in our products. Any of these could have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
If we are unable to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights, such information may be used by others to compete against us, in particular in developing consumables that could be used with our printing systems in place of our proprietary consumables.
We have devoted substantial resources to the development of our technology and related intellectual property rights. Our success and future revenue growth will depend, in part, on our ability to protect our intellectual property. We rely on a combination of registered and unregistered intellectual property and protect our rights using patents, licenses, trademarks, trade secrets, confidentiality and assignment of invention agreements and other methods.
Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, it is possible that competitors or other unauthorized third parties may obtain, copy, use or disclose our technologies, inventions, processes or improvements. We cannot assure you that any of our existing or future patents or other intellectual property rights will not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, or will otherwise provide us with meaningful protection. Our pending patent applications may not be granted, and we may not be able to obtain foreign patents or pending applications corresponding to our U.S. patents. Even if foreign patents are granted, effective enforcement in foreign countries may not be available.
Our trade secrets, know-how and other unregistered proprietary rights are a key aspect of our intellectual property portfolio. While we take reasonable steps to protect our trade secrets and confidential information and enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements intended to protect such rights, such agreements can be difficult and costly to enforce or may not provide adequate remedies if violated, and we may not have entered into such agreements with all relevant parties. Such agreements may be breached, and trade secrets or confidential information may be willfully or unintentionally disclosed, including by employees who may leave our company and join our competitors, or our competitors or other parties may learn of the information in some other way. The disclosure to, or independent development by, a competitor of any of our trade secrets, know-how or other technology not protected by a patent or other intellectual property system could materially reduce or eliminate any competitive advantage that we may have over such competitor. This concern could manifest itself in particular with respect to our proprietary consumables that are used with our systems. Portions of our proprietary consumables may not be afforded patent protection. Chemical companies or other producers of raw materials used in our consumables may be able to develop consumables that are compatible to a large extent with our products, whether independently or in contravention of our trade secret rights and related proprietary and contractual rights. If such consumables are made available to owners of our systems, and are purchased in place of our proprietary consumables, our revenues and profitability would be reduced, and we could be forced to reduce prices for our proprietary consumables.
If our patents and other intellectual property do not adequately protect our technology, our competitors may be able to offer products similar to ours. Our competitors may also be able to develop similar technology
 
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independently or design around our patents and other intellectual property. Any of the foregoing events would lead to increased competition and reduce our revenue or gross margin, which would adversely affect our operating results.
If we attempt enforcement of our intellectual property rights, we may be, and have been in the past, subject or party to claims, negotiations or complex, protracted litigation. Intellectual property disputes and litigation, regardless of merit, can be costly and disruptive to our business operations by diverting attention and energies of management and key technical personnel and by increasing our costs of doing business. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
As part of any settlement or other compromise to avoid complex, protracted litigation, we may agree not to pursue future claims against a third party, including related to alleged infringement of our intellectual property rights. Part of any settlement or other compromise with another party may resolve a potentially costly dispute but may also have future repercussions on our ability to defend and protect our intellectual property rights, which in turn could adversely affect our business.
Our additive manufacturing software contains third-party open-source software components, and failure to comply with the terms of the underlying open-source software licenses could restrict our ability to sell our products.
Our additive manufacturing software contains components that are licensed under so-called “open source,” “free” or other similar licenses. Open source software is made available to the general public on an “as- is” basis under the terms of a non-negotiable license. We currently combine our proprietary software with open source software, but not in a manner that we believe requires the release of the source code of our proprietary software to the public. We do not plan to integrate our proprietary software with open source software in ways that would require the release of the source code of our proprietary software to the public; however, our use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software. Open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. In addition, if we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain open source licenses, be required to release to the public or remove the source code of our proprietary software. We may also face claims alleging noncompliance with open source license terms or infringement or misappropriation of proprietary software. These claims could result in litigation, require us to purchase a costly license or remove the software. In addition, if the license terms for open source software that we use change, we may be forced to re-engineer our solutions, incur additional costs or discontinue the sale of our offerings if re-engineering could not be accomplished on a timely basis. Although we monitor our use of open source software to avoid subjecting our offerings to unintended conditions, there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our offerings. We cannot guarantee that we have incorporated open source software in our software in a manner that will not subject us to liability or in a manner that is consistent with our current policies and procedures.
Risks Related to Our Class A Common Stock
Our issuance of additional shares of Class A common stock or convertible securities may dilute your ownership of us and could adversely affect our stock price.
From time to time, we have issued, and we expect in the future to issue, additional shares of our Class A common stock or securities convertible into our Class A common stock pursuant to a variety of transactions, including acquisitions. Additional shares of our Class A common stock may also be issued upon exercise of outstanding stock options to purchase our Class A common stock. The issuance by us of additional shares of our Class A common stock or securities convertible into our Class A common stock would dilute your ownership of us and the sale of a significant amount of such shares in the public market could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our Class A common stock. Subject to the satisfaction of vesting conditions and the expiration of lockup agreements, shares issuable upon exercise of options will be available for resale immediately in the public market without restriction.
 
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In the future, we expect to obtain financing or to further increase our capital resources by issuing additional shares of our capital stock or offering debt or other equity securities, including senior or subordinated notes, debt securities convertible into equity, or shares of preferred stock. Issuing additional shares of our capital stock, other equity securities, or securities convertible into equity may dilute the economic and voting rights of our existing stockholders, reduce the market price of our Class A common stock, or both. Debt securities convertible into equity could be subject to adjustments in the conversion ratio pursuant to which certain events may increase the number of equity securities issuable upon conversion. Preferred stock, if issued, could have a preference with respect to liquidating distributions or a preference with respect to dividend payments that could limit our ability to pay dividends to the holders of our Class A common stock. Our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, which may adversely affect the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. As a result, holders of our Class A common stock bear the risk that our future offerings may reduce the market price of our Class A common stock and dilute their percentage ownership.
Future sales, or the perception of future sales, of our Class A common stock by us or our existing stockholders in the public market could cause the market price for our Class A common stock to decline.
The sale of substantial amounts of shares of our Class A common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could harm the prevailing market price of shares of our Class A common stock. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate.
In addition, pursuant to our amended and restated the registration rights agreement with certain of our stockholders, we are obligated to register the stockholders’ shares of Class A common stock or other rights to acquire Class A common stock. Those shares of Class A common stock have been registered pursuant to a Registration Statement on Form S-1 and are available for resale without restriction, subject to, in the case of stockholders who are our affiliates, volume, manner of sale and other limitations under Rule 144 promulgated under the Securities Act.
In addition, shares of our Class A common stock issuable upon exercise or vesting of incentive awards under our incentive plans are, once issued, eligible for sale in the public market, subject to any lock-up agreements and, in some cases, limitations on volume and manner of sale applicable to affiliates under Rule 144. Furthermore, shares of our Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Incentive Award Plan, or the 2020 Plan, including pursuant to the evergreen provision that allows our board of directors to reserve additional shares of Class A common stock for future issuance under the 2020 Plan each calendar year, may become available for sale in future.
The market price of shares of our Class A common stock could drop significantly if the holders of the shares described above sell them or are perceived by the market as intending to sell them. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to raise additional funds through future offerings of shares of our Class A common stock or other securities.
Our directors, executive officers and stockholders affiliated with our directors and executive officers own a significant percentage of our Class A common stock and, if they choose to act together, will be able to exert significant control over matters subject to shareholder approval.
Our directors, executive officers, and stockholders affiliated with our directors and executive officers exert significant influence on us. As of December 31, 2020, these holders owned approximately 60.9% of our outstanding Class A common stock. As a result, these holders, acting together, have significant control over all matters that require approval of our stockholders, including the election of directors, amendments of our organizational documents, or approval of any merger, sale of assets, or other major corporate transactions. The interests of these holders may not always coincide with our corporate interests or the interests of other stockholders, and they may act in a manner with which you may not agree or that may not be in the best interests of our other stockholders.
 
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Anti-takeover provisions in our governing documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of us more difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management and limit the market price of our Class A common stock.
Our certificate of incorporation, bylaws, and Delaware law contain provisions that could have the effect of rendering more difficult, delaying, or preventing an acquisition deemed undesirable by our board of directors. Among other things, our certificate of incorporation and bylaws include the following provisions:

a staggered board, which means that our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors with staggered three-year terms and directors are only able to be removed from office for cause;

limitations on convening special stockholder meetings, which could make it difficult for our stockholders to adopt desired governance changes;

a prohibition on stockholder action by written consent, which means that our stockholders will only be able to take action at a meeting of stockholders and will not be able to take action by written consent for any matter;

a forum selection clause, which means certain litigation against us can only be brought in Delaware;

the authorization of undesignated preferred stock, the terms of which may be established and shares of which may be issued without further action by our stockholders; and

advance notice procedures, which apply for stockholders to nominate candidates for election as directors or to bring matters before an annual meeting of stockholders.
These provisions, alone or together, could delay or prevent hostile takeovers and changes in control or changes in our management. As a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, including Section 203 of the DGCL, which prevents interested stockholders, such as certain stockholders holding more than 15% of our outstanding Class A common stock, from engaging in certain business combinations unless (i) prior to the time such stockholder became an interested stockholder, our board of directors approved the transaction that resulted in such stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, (ii) upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in such stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of our Class A common stock, or (iii) following board approval, such business combination receives the approval of the holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding Class A common stock not held by such interested stockholder at an annual or special meeting of stockholders.
Any provision of our certificate of incorporation, our bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our Class A common stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our Class A common stock.
We are an “emerging growth company” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our Class A common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, or JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we may follow reduced disclosure requirements and do not have to make all of the disclosures that public companies that are not emerging growth companies do. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (a) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenues of $1.07 billion or more; (b) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the completion of the initial public offering of Trine; (c) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (d) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC, which means the market value of our Class A common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior June 30th. For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted and intend to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These exemptions include:
 
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not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes- Oxley Act;

not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements (i.e., an auditor discussion and analysis);

reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports, proxy statements and registration statements; and

exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote of stockholders on executive compensation, stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved and having to disclose the ratio of the compensation of our chief executive officer to the median compensation of our employees.
In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to use the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards; and as a result of this election, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with public company effective dates.
We may choose to take advantage of some, but not all, of the available exemptions for emerging growth companies. We cannot predict whether investors will find our Class A common stock less attractive if we rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our Class A common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our Class A common stock and our share price may be more volatile.
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees.
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the (a) Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, in the event that the Chancery Court does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware or other state courts of the State of Delaware) shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for: (i) any derivative action, suit or proceeding brought on our behalf; (ii) any action, suit or proceeding asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, or stockholders to us or to our stockholders; (iii) any action, suit or proceeding asserting a claim arising pursuant to the DGCL, our certificate of incorporation or bylaws; or (iv) any action, suit or proceeding asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine; and (b) subject to the foregoing, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. Notwithstanding the foregoing, such forum selection provisions shall not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts of the United States have exclusive jurisdiction. The choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Additionally, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. As noted above, our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that the federal district courts of the United States of America shall have jurisdiction over any action arising under the Securities Act. Accordingly, there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such provision. Our
 
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stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.
General Risk Factors
Our Class A common stock price may be volatile or may decline regardless of our operating performance. You may lose some or all of your investment.
The trading price of our Class A common stock is likely to be volatile. The stock market recently has experienced extreme volatility. This volatility often has been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of particular companies. You may not be able to resell your shares at an attractive price due to a number of factors such as those listed in this section and the following:

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our financial condition and the results of operations;

our operating and financial performance and prospects;

our quarterly or annual earnings or those of other companies in our industry compared to market expectations;

conditions that impact demand for our products;

future announcements concerning our business, our customers’ businesses or our competitors’ businesses;

the public’s reaction to our press releases, other public announcements and filings with the SEC;

the market’s reaction to our reduced disclosure and other requirements as a result of being an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act;

the size of our public float;

coverage by or changes in financial estimates by securities analysts or failure to meet their expectations;

market and industry perception of our success, or lack thereof, in pursuing our growth strategy;

strategic actions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions or restructurings;

changes in laws or regulations which adversely affect our industry or us;

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;

changes in senior management or key personnel;

issuances, exchanges or sales, or expected issuances, exchanges or sales of our capital stock;

changes in our dividend policy;

adverse resolution of new or pending litigation against us; and

changes in general market, economic and political conditions in the United States and global economies or financial markets, including those resulting from natural disasters, terrorist attacks, acts of war and responses to such events.
These broad market and industry factors may materially reduce the market price of our Class A common stock, regardless of our operating performance. In addition, price volatility may be greater if the public float and trading volume of our Class A common stock is low. As a result, you may suffer a loss on your investment.
In the past, following periods of market volatility, stockholders have instituted securities class action litigation. If we were involved in securities litigation, it could have a substantial cost and divert resources and the attention of executive management from our business regardless of the outcome of such litigation.
If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about us, or if they issue unfavorable commentary about us or our industry or downgrade our Class A common stock, the price of our Class A common stock could decline.
The trading market for our Class A common stock depends, in part, on the research and reports that third-party securities analysts publish about us and the industries in which we operate. We may be unable or
 
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slow to attract research coverage and if one or more analysts cease coverage of us, the price and trading volume of our securities would likely be negatively impacted. If any of the analysts that may cover us change their recommendation regarding our Class A common stock adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of our Class A common stock would likely decline. If any analyst that may cover us ceases covering us or fails to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause the price or trading volume of our Class A common stock to decline. Moreover, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrades our Class A common stock, or if our reporting results do not meet their expectations, the market price of our Class A common stock could decline.
The obligations associated with being a public company involve significant expenses and require significant resources and management attention, which may divert from our business operations.
We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Exchange Act requires that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and financial condition. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we establish and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting. As a result, we will incur increased legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not previously incur. Our entire management team and many of our other employees will need to devote substantial time to compliance and may not effectively or efficiently manage our transition into a public company.
In addition, the need to establish the corporate infrastructure demanded of a public company may also divert management’s attention from implementing our business strategy, which could prevent us from improving our business, results of operations and financial condition. We have made, and will continue to make, changes to our internal control over financial reporting, including IT controls, and procedures for financial reporting and accounting systems to meet our reporting obligations as a public company.
However, the measures we take may not be sufficient to satisfy our obligations as a public company. If we do not continue to develop and implement the right processes and tools to manage our changing enterprise and maintain our culture, our ability to compete successfully and achieve our business objectives could be impaired, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur to comply with these requirements. We anticipate that these costs will materially increase our general and administrative expenses.
These rules and regulations result in our incurring legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified people to serve on our board of directors, our board committees or as executive officers.
As a public reporting company, we will be subject to rules and regulations established from time to time by the SEC regarding our internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to establish and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or report them in a timely manner.
We are subject to the rules and regulations established from time to time by the SEC and the NYSE. These rules and regulations require, among other things that we establish and periodically evaluate procedures with respect to our internal control over financial reporting. Reporting obligations as a public company are likely to place a considerable strain on our financial and management systems, processes and controls, as well as on our personnel.
In addition, as a public company, we are required to document and test our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act so that our management can certify as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. For additional information related to the risks and uncertainties of our compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, see “— Risks Related to Our Business and Operations — Our internal controls over financial reporting currently do not meet all of the standards contemplated by Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and failure
 
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to achieve and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could impair our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations and have a material adverse effect on our business.
We are, and have been in the recent past, subject to litigation.
We are currently, and have been in the recent past, subject to litigation, and we could be subject to further litigation in the future. In 2018, we brought a claim in Massachusetts federal court against Markforged, Inc., or Markforged, a competitor in the additive manufacturing industry, regarding patent infringement and trade secret misappropriation. Markforged counterclaimed for trade secret misappropriation. We and Markforged entered into a confidential settlement agreement covering such matters in October 2018. In July 2019, Markforged brought a claim against us in Massachusetts federal court alleging false and misleading statements about their products in violation of the settlement agreement, which includes mutual non-disparagement and confidentiality obligations. The hearing was held in December 2020 and the arbitrator has ruled that we do not owe Markforged any damages associated with the claim.
While we intend to mount vigorous defenses to the above-described proceeding and any future lawsuits that may be brought against us by any third party, we can provide no assurance as to the outcome of any such disputes, and any such actions may result in judgments against us for significant damages. Resolution of any such matters can be prolonged and costly, and the ultimate results or judgments are uncertain due to the inherent uncertainty in litigation and other proceedings. In addition, the additive manufacturing industry has been, and may continue to be, litigious, particularly with respect to intellectual property claims. Moreover, our potential liabilities are subject to change over time due to new developments, changes in settlement strategy or the impact of evidentiary requirements. Regardless of the outcome, litigation has resulted in the past, and may result in the future, in significant legal expenses and require significant attention and resources of management. As a result, any present or future litigation that may be brought against us by any third party could result in losses, damages and expenses that have a significant adverse effect on our financial condition.
We do not intend to pay dividends on our Class A common stock for the foreseeable future.
We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends on our Class A common stock in the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our business prospects, results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements and availability, certain restrictions related to our indebtedness, industry trends and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. Any such decision will also be subject to compliance with contractual restrictions and covenants in the agreements governing our current and future indebtedness. In addition, we may incur additional indebtedness, the terms of which may further restrict or prevent us from paying dividends on our Class A common stock. As a result, you may have to sell some or all of your Class A common stock after price appreciation in order to generate cash flow from your investment, which you may not be able to do. Our inability or decision not to pay dividends, particularly when others in our industry have elected to do so, could also adversely affect the market price of our Class A common stock.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We are filing the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part to permit holders of the shares of our Class A common stock described in the section entitled “Selling Securityholders” to resell such shares. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares by the Selling Securityholders.
The Selling Securityholders will pay all incremental selling expenses relating to the sale of their shares, including underwriters’ or agents’ commissions and discounts, brokerage fees, underwriter marketing costs and all reasonable fees and expenses of any legal counsel representing the Selling Securityholders, except that we will pay the reasonable fees and expenses of one legal counsel for the Selling Securityholders, in the event of an underwritten offering of their shares. We will bear all other costs, fees and expenses incurred in effecting the registration of the shares covered by this prospectus, including, without limitation, all registration and filing fees, printing and delivery fees, NYSE listing fees and fees and expenses of our counsel and our accountants.
 
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DIVIDEND POLICY
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We do not expect to pay dividends on our capital stock for the foreseeable future, instead anticipating that all of our earnings for the foreseeable future will be used for the operation and growth of our business. The payment of any future dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on various factors, including our operating results, financial condition, capital requirements, growth plans, any contractual and legal restrictions on our payment of dividends, and any other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors.
MARKET INFORMATION
Our Class A common stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbols “DM”. As of April 30, 2021, there were 214 holders of record of our Class A common stock. The actual number of stockholders of our Class A common stock is greater than the number of record holders and includes stockholders whose shares of Class A common stock are held in street name by brokers and other nominees.
 
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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION OF DESKTOP METAL AND ENVISIONTEC
Introduction
The following tables present unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information about Desktop Metal, Inc. (“Desktop Metal,” “we,” “us,” and “our”) consolidated balance sheet and statements of income, after giving effect to the February 2021 merger with EnvisionTEC Group (“EnvisionTEC”). The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information is derived from and should be read in conjunction with the historical consolidated financial statements and related notes of Desktop Metal and the combined financial statements of EnvisionTEC.
On February 16, 2021, we acquired EnvisionTEC pursuant to a Purchase Agreement and Plan of Merger dated January 15, 2021. The Company expects this acquisition to create a comprehensive portfolio in additive manufacturing across metals, polymers and composites and grow distribution channels both in quantity and through the addition of a vertically-focused channel. The Company paid consideration of $143.8 million in cash and issued 5,036,142 shares of the Company’s Common Stock with a fair value of $159.8 million as of the close of business on the transaction date.
EnvisionTEC consists of EnvisionTEC, Inc., a Michigan corporation operating in the U.S.; EnvisionTEC GmbH, a German company with limited liability, which operates in Germany; 3dBotics, Inc, d.b.a Virids3D, a Michigan corporation, which prints 3D sand molds, and Gulf Filtration Systems, a Michigan corporation, which holds certain intellectual property. EnvisionTEC is a leading global provider of professional-grade 3D printing solutions for the rapid manufacture of mass customized products across a variety of end markets. The company’s 3D printing solutions include three proprietary print technologies and wide range of print materials. The company’s 3D printing solutions are used by customers for numerous applications, including the development and manufacture of customized jewelry, hearing aid, dental, biotech and foundry products.
Desktop Metal is pioneering a new generation of additive manufacturing technologies focused on the production of end-use parts. It offers a portfolio of integrated additive manufacturing solutions for engineers, designers, and manufacturers comprised of hardware, software, materials and services. Desktop Metal is headquartered in Burlington, Massachusetts.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 and for the three months ended March 31, 2021 are presented herein. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations combine the historical results of Desktop Metal and EnvisionTEC for the year ended December 31, 2020 and for the three months ended March 31, 2021 give effect to the merger as if it occurred on January 1, 2020.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information presented is based on the assumptions and adjustments described in the accompanying notes. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information is presented for illustrative purposes and does not purport to represent what the financial position or results of operations would actually have been if the merger occurred as of the dates indicated or what financial position or results would be for any future periods. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information is based upon the respective historical consolidated financial statements of Desktop Metal and EnvisionTEC as described further in Note 1 — Basis of Pro Forma Presentation.
The merger will be accounted for as a business combination using the acquisition method of accounting under the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 805, “Business Combinations” ​(ASC 805), with Desktop Metal representing the accounting acquirer under this guidance. The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information primarily gives effect to:

Application of the acquisition method of accounting in connection with the merger; and

Transaction costs in connection with the merger.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information includes adjustments which are preliminary and may be revised. There can be no assurance that such revisions will not result in material
 
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changes. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information is presented for illustrative purposes only and is not necessarily indicative of the results or financial position that actually would have occurred or that may occur in the future had the merger been completed on the dates indicated, nor is it necessarily indicative of the future operating results or financial position of Desktop Metal after the merger.
 
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Desktop Metal, Inc.
UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020
(in thousands, except per share data)
Desktop Metal
(Historical)
EnvisionTEC
(Historical)
Transaction
Accounting
Adjustments
Note
References
Pro Forma
Combined
Revenues
Products
$ 13,718 $ 40,874 $ $ 54,592
Services
2,752 1,258 (192)
4(e)
3,818
Total revenues
16,470 42,132 (192) 58,410
Cost of sales
Products
26,945 18,378 9,806
4(a). 4(c) 4(d)
55,129
Services
4,574 151 4,725
Total cost of sales
31,519 18,529 9,806 59,854
Gross margin
(15,049) 23,603 (9,998) (1,444)
Operating expenses:
Research and development
43,136 4,270 9
4(c)
47,415
Sales and marketing
13,136 3,087 5,111
4(a). 4(c)
21,334
General and administrative
20,734 5,755 671
4(a), 4(c)
27,160
Total Operating Expenses
77,006 13,112 5,791 95,909
Profit/(Loss) from Operations
(92,055) 10,491 (15,789) (97,353)
Change in fair value of warrant liability
56,417 56,417
Interest expense
(328) (328)
Interest and other income, net
1,011 755 1,766
Profit/(Loss) before income taxes
(34,955) 11,246 (15,789) (39,498)
Income tax benefit
940 (380) 27,920
4(b)
28,480
Net Profit/(Loss)
$ (34,015) $ 10,866 $ 12,131 $ (11,018)
Shares used to compute earnings per share – basic and diluated
157,906 5,036 162,942
Net Profit/Loss per share – basic and diluted
$ (0.22) $ $ $ (0.07)
 
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Desktop Metal, Inc.
UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS
FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED March 31, 2021
(in thousands, except per share data)
Desktop Metal(A)
EnvisionTEC
(Historical)
January 1, 2021 to
February 15, 2021(B)
Transaction
Accounting
Adjustments
Note
References
Pro Forma
Combined
Revenues
Products
$ 10,311 $ 3,239 $ $ 13,550
Services
1,002 57 (1)
4(e)
1,058
Total revenues
11,313 3,296 (1) 14,608
Cost of sales
Products
10,487 4,246 288
4(a). 4(c) 4(d)
15,021
Services
1,413 32 1,445
Total cost of sales
11,900 4,278 288 16,466
Gross margin
(587) (982) (289) (1,858)
Operating expenses:
Research and development
10,858 515 6
4(c)
11,379
Sales and marketing
5,449 513 665
4(a). 4(c)
6,627
General and administrative
13,846 1,571 105
4(a), 4(c)
15,522
Total Operating Expenses
30,153 2,599 776 33,528
Loss from Operations
(30,740) (3,581) (1,065) (35,386)
Change in fair value of warrant liability
(56,576) (56,576)
Interest expense
(73) (73)
Interest and other income, net
361 152 513
Loss before income taxes
(87,028) (3,429) (1,065) (91,522)
Income tax benefit
27,920 (58) (27,920)
4(b)
(58)
Net Loss
$ (59,108) $ (3,487) $ (28,985) $ (91,580)
Shares used to compute earnings per share – basic and diluted
238,244 2,490 240,734
Net Profit/Loss per share – basic and diluted
$ (0.25) $ $ $ (0.38)
(A)
as derived from Desktop Metal unaudited financial information for the period January 1, 2021 through March 31, 2021, which includes EnvisionTEC unaudited financial information from February 16, 2021 through March 31, 2021
(B)
as derived from EnvisionTEC unaudited financial information for the period January 1, 2021 through February 15, 2021
 
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NOTES TO UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Note 1 — Basis of Pro Forma Presentation
The accompanying unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information was prepared in accordance with Article 11 of SEC Regulation S-X. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations were prepared using:

the historical audited statement of operations of Desktop Metal for the year ended December 31, 2020,

the historical audited consolidated statement of operations of EnvisionTEC for the year ended December 31, 2020,

the unaudited consolidated statement of operations of Desktop Metal for the three months ended March 31, 2021, and

the unaudited consolidated statement of operations of EnvisionTEC for the period January 1, 2021 through February 15, 2021.
The acquisition of EnvisionTEC by Desktop Metal is accounted for as a business combination using the acquisition method of accounting under the provisions of ASC 805, with Desktop Metal representing the accounting acquirer under this guidance. Desktop Metal’s costs to acquire EnvisionTEC have been allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, based upon management’s estimates of fair value as of the merger date. The pro forma adjustments are based upon available information and certain assumptions which management believes are reasonable. Actual results may differ materially from the assumptions within the accompanying unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information. Any excess of the purchase price over the fair value of identified tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed is recognized as goodwill.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations also include certain purchase accounting adjustments, such as increased amortization expense on acquired intangible assets. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations do not include the impacts of any revenue, cost or other operating synergies that may result from the merger or any related restructuring costs that may be contemplated.
Note 2 — Reclassifications
Both Desktop Metal and EnvisionTEC’s historical audited financial statements were prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and are presented in thousands of U.S. dollars. The historical EnvisionTEC financial statements included within the unaudited pro forma condensed statements of operations include certain reclassifications that were made to conform EnvisionTEC’s financial statement presentation to that of Desktop Metal as indicated in the table below:
Statement of Operations for the Year Ended December 31, 2020
Amount
(In thousands)
Presentation in EnvisionTEC’s
Financial Statements
Presentation in Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined
Financial Information
$40,874
Net revenue Revenues – Products
1,258
Net revenue Revenues – Services
18,378
Cost of goods sold Cost of sales – Products
151
Cost of goods sold Cost of sales – Services
3,087
Selling, general and administrative Sales and marketing
5,755
Selling, general and administrative General and administrative
755
Other income Interest and other income, net
 
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NOTES TO UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Note 3 — Conforming Accounting Policies
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared using Desktop Metal’s significant accounting policies as set forth in Desktop Metal’s audited consolidated financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. During the preparation of the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information, Desktop Metal performed review of the accounting policies of EnvisionTEC to determine if differences in accounting policies require adjustment to conform to Desktop Metal’s accounting policies and classifications.
Desktop Metal became aware of differences between the accounting policies of Desktop Metal and EnvisionTEC related to ASC 842, Leases (“ASC 842”). Desktop Metal adopted ASC 842 using the modified retrospective approach effective January 1, 2018. EnvisionTEC had yet to adopt ASC 842 as of December 31, 2020. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 and for the three months ended March 31, 2021 properly reflect the impacts of adopting this standard.
Note 4 — Transaction Accounting Adjustments
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared to illustrate the effect of the merger and has been prepared for informational purposes only. The historical financial information has been adjusted to give effect to pro forma adjustments that reflect the transaction in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The pro forma condensed combined statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 and the three months ended March 31, 2021 include $1.1 million and $4.3 million of transaction costs related to the EnvisionTEC acquisition, respectively. These transaction costs are not expected to recur.
The unaudited pro forma combined provision for income taxes does not necessarily reflect the amounts that would have resulted had Desktop Metal filed consolidated income tax returns during the periods presented.
The unaudited pro forma basic and diluted earnings per share amounts presented in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations are based upon the number of Desktop Metal’s shares outstanding, assuming the merger occurred on January 1, 2020.
Merger Consideration and Allocation:
The aggregate consideration for the merger is $303.6 million, $143.8 million in cash, and $159.8 million in an equivalent number of shares based on Desktop Metal’s closing share price of $31.74 on February 16, 2021.
The following table summarizes the components of the merger consideration reflected in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information (in thousands of dollars):
December 31, 2020
Cash consideration
$ 143,795
Issuance of Desktop Metal shares
159,847
Total purchase price
$ 303,642
 
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NOTES TO UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
The following table exhibits the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed by Desktop Metal, reconciled to the consideration transferred:
December 31, 2020
Net book value of net assets acquired
$ 38,737
Adjustments to:
Intangible assets
136,755
Step-up of inventory value
871
Deferred revenue haircut
192
Deferred tax
(33,348)
Extinguishment of related party loan payable
207
Write-off historical capitalized software
(31)
Goodwill
160,259
Total consideration
$ 303,642
The intangible assets acquired include developed technology, trade names, and customer relationships. The developed technology and trade names are valued based on a relief from royalty method which estimates the value based on the hypothetical royalty payments that are saved by owning the asset. Customer relationships are valued based on a multi-period excess earnings model which calculates the present value of the estimated revenues and net cash flows derived from the customer relationships.
The table below summarizes the fair values for each finite life intangible asset and the estimated useful life (in thousands, except years):
Description
Useful Life
Fair Value
Balance Sheet
Classification
Customer relationships
10 $ 50,900
Intangible assets, net
Acquired technology
7 – 12
77,800
Intangible assets, net
Trade name
13 8,600
Intangible assets, net
Total identifiable intangible assets
$ 137,300
Adjustments to Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Statements of Operations
(a)
Reflects additional amortization expense for the estimated fair value adjustment of acquired intangible assets of $14.6 million with $8.9 million recorded to cost of sales, $5.1 million recorded to sales and marketing, and $0.6 million record to general and administrative for the year ended December 31, 2020. Reflects additional amortization expense for the estimated fair value adjustment of acquired intangible assets of $1.9 million with $1.1 million recorded to cost of sales, $0.7 million recorded to sales and marketing, and $0.1 million record to general and administrative for the three months ended March 31, 2021.
(b)
To record the partial release of the valuation allowance of $27.9 million related to the deferred tax liability that was acquired in the transaction for the year ended December 31, 2020. To adjust the provision for income taxes by $27.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 to reflect the pro forma statement of operations as if the acquisition of EnvisionTEC occurred on January 1, 2020.
(c)
To record the additional lease expense to be recorded under ASC 842 of $0.1 million; including $22,000 recorded to cost of sales products, $9,000 recorded to research and development, $21,000 recorded to sales and marketing, and $29,000 recorded to general and administrative for the year ended December 31, 2020. To record the additional lease expense to be recorded under ASC 842 of $55,000 including $15,000 recorded to cost of sales products, $6,000 recorded to research and development, $14,000 recorded to sales and marketing, and $20,000 recorded to general and administrative for the three months ended March 31, 2021.
 
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NOTES TO UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
(d)
To record the amortization of the step up in inventory value of $0.9 million over the typical inventory turn for WIP and finished goods which was determined to be approximately 30 days for the year ended December 31, 2020. To adjust the amortization of the step up in inventory value of $0.9 million over the typical inventory turn for WIP and finished goods for the three months ended March 31, 2021.
(e)
To record the amortization of the deferred revenue haircut of $0.2 million over one year which is the typical service period for the year ended December 31, 2020. To adjust the amortization of the deferred revenue haircut of $1,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2021 to reflect the pro forma statement of operations as of if the acquisition of EnvisionTEC occurred on January 1, 2020.
Note 5 — Loss per Share
Net loss per share calculated using the historical weighted average shares outstanding, and the issuance of additional shares in connection with the merger, assuming all shares issued for the EnvisionTEC merger were outstanding since January 1, 2020. As the transaction is reflected as if it had occurred at the beginning of the period presented, the calculation of weighted average shares outstanding for basic and diluted net loss per share assumes that the shares issued have been outstanding for the entire period presented.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared for the year ended December 31, 2020 and the three months ended March 31, 2021:
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
Year Ended
December 31, 2020
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2021
Pro forma net loss
$ (11,018) $ (91,580)
Pro forma weighted average shares outstanding  –  basic and diluted
162,942,142 240,733,775
Pro forma EPS – basic and diluted
$ (0.07) $ (0.38)
Pro forma weighted average shares outstanding  –  basic and diluted
Desktop Metal Weighted Average Shares Outstanding
157,906,000 238,244,000
EnvisionTEC Shares Issued Pro Forma Adjustment
5,036,142 2,489,778
Pro Forma Combined Shares
162,942,142 240,733,778
 
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
You should read the following discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations together with the consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other financial information of Desktop Metal included elsewhere in this prospectus. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. As a result of many factors, such as those set forth in the section of the prospectus captioned “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus, actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements.
Business Overview
Desktop Metal is pioneering a new generation of additive manufacturing technologies focused on the production of end-use parts. We offer a comprehensive portfolio of integrated additive manufacturing solutions comprising hardware, software, materials and services with support for metals, composites, polymers, ceramics, sands, and biocompatible materials. Our solutions span use cases across the product life cycle, from product development to mass production and aftermarket operations, and they address an array of industries, including automotive, aerospace, healthcare and dental, consumer products, heavy industry, general machinery and machine components and research and development.
Our growth strategy begins with a commitment to research and development. Since our founding in 2015, we have invested significant resources in research and development, including $10.9 million thus far in 2021, towards building an extensive portfolio of proprietary and differentiated technologies with a focus on making additive manufacturing an easy-to-use, economic and scalable solution. These technologies represent the cornerstones of our future product introductions and are critical to enhancing our existing offerings, and as such are protected by over 300 patents or pending patent applications. Our additive manufacturing platforms, which leverage these technologies for the production of end-use parts, enable businesses to address their specific goals through a range of solutions that span multiple price points, throughput levels and operating environments.
These platforms enable customers to adopt additive manufacturing across new applications where conventional manufacturing has customarily held cost and volume advantages by offering breakthrough print speeds, competitive part costs, accessible workflows and software, turnkey solutions, and support for over 225 qualified materials, the sale of which represent a recurring revenue stream from customers of our additive manufacturing systems in addition to system consumables and other services, such as installation, training and technical support. Across printers, parts and materials, we intend to continue investing resources to develop advances and new technologies that allow us to serve a broader customer base and reach new verticals, thereby expanding our addressable market and driving adoption of additive manufacturing for the volume production of end-use parts.
We leverage our core competencies in technology innovation and product development by marketing and selling our additive manufacturing solutions through a leading global distribution network, managed and augmented by our own internal sales and marketing teams. This distribution network covers over 60 countries around the world and is composed of sales professionals with decades of experience in digital manufacturing technologies. Similarly, in addition to manufacturing a subset of our additive manufacturing systems in-house, our internal manufacturing and supply chain teams work collaboratively with both our internal engineering department and third-party contract manufacturers to scale up initial prototypes for commercialization and volume commercial shipments. Together, our distribution network and manufacturing approach allow us to produce, sell and service our products at-scale in global markets and creates substantial operating leverage as we execute our strategy.
Operating Results
For the three months ended March 31, 2021, we recognized revenues of $11.3 million and used cash in operating activities of $41.1 million, and we ended the period with $572.2 million of cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments. We incurred a net loss of $59.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021. In December 2020, we completed the Business Combination, receiving $534.6 million net cash proceeds, and during the first three months of 2021, the public warrants were exercised, generating $170.7 million of
 
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net cash proceeds, both of which we expect to support our operations and investments in the near term. As of March 31, 2021, we had $416.4 million in cash and cash equivalents, $155.8 million in short-term liquid investments, and current liabilities of $37.5 million.
For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized revenues of $16.5 million and used cash in operating activities of $80.6 million, and we ended the year with $595.4 million of cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments. We incurred a net loss of $90.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. In December 2020, we completed the Business Combination, receiving $534.6 million net cash proceeds, which we expect to support our operations and investments in the near term.
Recent Developments
Trine Merger
On December 9, 2020, we consummated the Business Combination. Cash proceeds of the Business Combination were funded through a combination of Trine’s $305 million of cash held in trust, net of redemptions of $0.3 million, and an aggregate of $275 million in gross proceeds to us from the sale of shares of our Class A common stock in a private placement in connection with the Business Combination, or the PIPE financing. Our cash on hand after giving effect to these transactions will be used for general corporate purposes, including advancement of our product development efforts. We also intend to use the proceeds to acquire other companies or technologies in the additive manufacturing industry.
The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization. Legacy Desktop Metal has been determined to be the accounting acquirer based on the following facts and circumstances:

Legacy Desktop Metal’s shareholders have majority of the voting power in Desktop Metal;

Legacy Desktop Metal has the ability to appoint a majority of the board of directors of Desktop Metal;

Legacy Desktop Metal’s existing management comprises the management of Desktop Metal;

Legacy Desktop Metal comprises the ongoing operations of Desktop Metal;

Legacy Desktop Metal is the larger entity based on historical revenues and business operations; and

Desktop Metal assumed Legacy Desktop Metal’s name.
Under this method of accounting, Trine is treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the Business Combination is treated as the equivalent of Legacy Desktop Metal issuing stock for the net assets of Trine, accompanied by a recapitalization, and the historical financial statements of Legacy Desktop Metal became the historical financial statements of our company upon the closing of the Business Combination.
EnvisionTEC Acquisition
On February 16, 2021, pursuant to the Purchase Agreement and Plan of Merger dated January 14, 2021, we consummated the EnvisionTEC Acquisition. The Company paid consideration of $143.8 million in cash and issued 5,036,142 Class A common shares with a fair value of $159.8 million as of the close of business on the acquisition date. In connection with the transaction, the Company also agreed to grant restricted stock awards totaling 475,848 shares of Class A common stock to key EnvisionTEC employees. As of March 31, 2021, the Company has not completed the grant of restricted stock awards.
Desktop Health
On March 15, 2021, we announced the launch of Desktop Health, a new business focused on accelerating the growth of additive manufacturing solutions for dental, orthodontic, otolaryngology and dermatology applications. Enabled by Desktop Metal’s proprietary technology infrastructure for end-use parts production, including high-speed photopolymer, metal binder jetting and bioprinting additive manufacturing technologies combined with an extensive library of advanced materials, Desktop Health’s mission is to create advanced, patient-specific solutions in the medical field.
 
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Trine Warrants
On April 12, 2021, the Staff of the SEC issued the “Staff Statement on Accounting and Reporting Considerations for Warrants Issued by Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (“SPACs”)” ​(the “Staff Statement”). The Staff Statement discussed “certain features of warrants issued in SPAC transactions” that “may be common across many entities.” The Staff Statement indicated that when one or more of such features is included in a warrant, the warrant “should be classified as a liability measured at fair value, with changes in fair value each period reported in earnings.” The Company has concluded that the Private Placement Warrants are to be classified as a liability measured at fair value on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet upon the Business Combination on December 9, 2020, with subsequent changes in fair value reported in our statement of operations each reporting period. As of March 31, 2021, all Private Placement Warrants were exercised and there was no outstanding warrant liability.
COVID-19
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of COVID-19 a pandemic. It is not possible to accurately predict the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, financial condition and results of operations due to the evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic and the extent of its impact across industries and geographies and numerous other uncertainties. For example, we face uncertainties about the duration and spread of the outbreak, additional actions that may be taken by governmental entities, and the impact it may have on the ability of us, our customers, our suppliers, our manufacturers and our other business partners to conduct business. Governments in affected regions have implemented, and may continue to implement, safety precautions which include quarantines, travel restrictions, business closures, cancellations of public gatherings and other measures as they deem necessary. Many organizations and individuals, including our company and employees, are taking additional steps to avoid or reduce infections, including limiting travel and staying home from work. These measures are disrupting normal business operations and have had significant negative impacts on businesses and financial markets worldwide. We continue to monitor our operations and government recommendations and have made modifications to our normal operations because of the COVID-19 pandemic, including requiring most non-engineering or operations-related team members to work remotely, utilizing heightened cleaning and sanitization procedures, implementing new health and safety protocols and reducing non-essential travel.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused us to experience several adverse impacts, including extended sales cycles to close new orders for our products, delays in shipping and installing orders due to closed facilities and travel limitations and delays in collecting accounts receivable. The rapid development and uncertainty of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic precludes any prediction as to the ultimate adverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business. However, the COVID-19 pandemic, and the measures taken to contain it, present material uncertainty and risk with respect to our performance and financial results. In particular, businesses across an array of vertical markets are temporarily reducing capital expenditure budgets globally as they seek to preserve liquidity to ensure the longevity of their own operations, which in turn may lead to reductions in purchases of our additive manufacturing solutions. Further, office closures may prevent organizations from reaching typical utilizations of our additive manufacturing solutions, resulting in reductions in purchases of consumable materials. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic may contribute to facility closures at our third-party contract manufacturers and key suppliers, causing delays and disruptions in product manufacturing, which could affect our ability to ship products purchased by our customers in a timely manner. Disruptions in the capital markets as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic may also adversely affect our business if these impacts continue for a prolonged period and we need additional liquidity.
In the long-term, we believe that the COVID-19 pandemic will encourage organizations to reassess their supply chain structure and may accelerate their adoption of solutions such as additive manufacturing, which could allow for greater flexibility and a reduced reliance on overseas manufacturing.
Key Factors Affecting Operating Results
We believe that our performance and future success depend on many factors that present significant opportunities for us but also pose risks and challenges, including those discussed below and in “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus.
 
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Commercial Launch of Products
Several of our products began commercial shipments in late 2020 and early 2021, with more in the late stages of development and scheduled to begin commercial shipments in 2021. Prior to commercialization, we must complete final testing and manufacturing ramp-up of these products at our third-party contract manufacturers. Any delays in successful completion of these steps may impact our ability to generate revenue from these products.
Adoption of our Additive Manufacturing Solutions
We believe the world is at an inflection point in the adoption of additive manufacturing solutions and that we are well-positioned to take advantage of this opportunity across an array of industries due to our proprietary technologies and global distribution capabilities. We expect that our results of operations, including revenue and gross margins, will fluctuate for the foreseeable future as businesses continue to shift away from conventional manufacturing processes towards additive manufacturing for end-use parts. Our turnkey and volume production solutions are designed to empower businesses to realize the full benefits of additive manufacturing at-scale, including geometric and design flexibility, mass customization and supply chain engineering, among others. The degree to which potential and current customers recognize these benefits and invest in our solutions will affect our financial results.
Pricing, Product Cost and Margins
Our comprehensive portfolio of additive manufacturing solutions spans multiple price points, materials, throughput levels, operating environments and technologies to enable customers to find the solution that achieves their specific goals. We also expect to commercialize additional previously announced products over the course of 2021. Pricing for these products may vary by region due to market-specific supply and demand dynamics and product lifecycles, and sales of certain products have, or are expected to have, higher gross margins than others. As a result, our financial performance depends, in part, on the mix of products we sell during a given period. In addition, we are subject to price competition, and our ability to compete in key markets will depend on the success of our investments in new technologies and cost improvements as well as our ability to efficiently and reliability introduce cost-effective additive manufacturing solutions for our customers.
Continued Investment and Innovation
We believe that we are a leader in mass production and turnkey additive manufacturing solutions, offering breakthrough technologies that enable high throughput and ease-of-use through our broad product portfolio. Our performance is significantly dependent on the investment we make in our research and development efforts and on our ability to be at the forefront of the additive manufacturing industry. It is essential that we continually identify and respond to rapidly evolving customer requirements, develop and introduce innovative new products, enhance existing products and generate customer demand for our solutions. We believe that investment in our additive manufacturing solutions will contribute to long-term revenue growth, but it may adversely affect our near-term profitability.
Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
The majority of our revenue results from the sales of products, including our additive manufacturing systems and embedded on-device software and related consumables. Product revenue is recognized upon transfer of control to the customer, which generally takes place at the point of shipment. We also generate a portion of our revenue from software and support services. Software revenue is recognized (i) in the case of on-device software, upon transfer of control to the customer, which generally takes place upon shipment, and (ii) in the case of cloud-based software, which is primarily sold through one-year annual contracts, ratably over the term of the agreement. Revenue from support services for our additive manufacturing systems is primarily generated through one-year annual contracts and is recognized ratably over the term of the agreement.
 
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We generate revenue and deliver products and services principally through sales to resellers, who purchase and resell our products and also provide installation and support services for our additive manufacturing solutions to end-users. Occasionally and for certain products (and related consumables, software and support services), we generate revenue from and deliver services to our customers directly.
Cost of Revenue
Our cost of revenue consists of the cost of products and cost of services. Cost of products includes the manufacturing cost of our additive manufacturing systems and consumables, which primarily consists of amounts paid to our third-party contract manufacturers and suppliers and personnel-related costs directly associated with manufacturing operations. Cost of services includes personnel-related costs directly associated with the provision of support services to our customers, which include engineers dedicated to remote support as well as, training, support and the associated travel costs. Our cost of revenues also includes depreciation and amortization, cost of spare or replacement parts, warranty costs, excess and obsolete inventory and shipping costs, and an allocated portion of overhead costs. We expect cost of revenue to increase in absolute dollars in future periods as we expect our revenues to continue to grow.
Gross Profit and Gross Margin
Our gross profit is calculated based on the difference between our revenues and cost of revenues. Gross margin is the percentage obtained by dividing gross profit by our revenue. Our gross profit and gross margin are, or may be, influenced by a number of factors, including:

Market conditions that may impact our pricing

Product mix changes between established products and new products;

Growth in our installed customer base or changes in customer utilization of our additive manufacturing systems, which affects sales of our consumable materials and may result in excess or obsolete inventories; and

Our cost structure for manufacturing operations, including contract manufacturers, relative to volume, and our product support obligations.
Research and Development
Our research and development expenses represent costs incurred to support activities that advance the development of innovative additive manufacturing technologies, new product platforms and consumables, as well as activities that enhance the capabilities of our existing product platforms. Our research and development expenses consist primarily of employee-related personnel expenses, prototypes, design expenses, consulting and contractor costs and an allocated portion of overhead costs. We expect research and development costs will increase on an absolute dollar basis over time as we continue to invest in advancing our portfolio of additive manufacturing solutions.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of employee-related costs for individuals working in our sales and marketing departments, third party commissions, costs related to trade shows and events and an allocated portion of overhead costs. We expect our sales and marketing costs will increase on an absolute dollar basis as we expand our headcount, initiate new marketing campaigns and launch new product platforms.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel-related expenses associated with our executive, finance, legal, information technology and human resources functions, as well as professional fees for legal, audit, accounting and other consulting services, and an allocated portion of overhead costs. We expect our general and administrative expenses will increase on an absolute dollar basis as a result of operating as a public company, including expenses necessary to comply with the rules and regulations applicable to companies listed on a national securities exchange and related to compliance and reporting
 
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obligations pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC, as well as increased expenses for general and director and officer insurance, investor relations, and other administrative and professional services. In addition, we expect to incur additional costs as we hire additional personnel and enhance our infrastructure to support the anticipated growth of the business.
Interest Expense
Interest expense includes cash interest related to our term loan as well as amortization of deferred financing fees and costs.
Interest and Other Income, Net
Interest and other income, net includes interest earned on deposits and short-term investments and gains and losses on investments.
Income Taxes
Our income tax provision consists of an estimate for U.S. federal and state and foreign income taxes based on enacted rates, as adjusted for allowable credits, deductions, uncertain tax positions, changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities and changes in tax law. Due to cumulative losses, we maintain a valuation allowance against our U.S., state and foreign deferred tax assets. We recognized an income tax benefit of $0.9 million related to the acquisition of acquired technology.
Results of Operations
Comparison of the three months ended March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020
Revenue
The following table presents the revenue of each of our revenue streams, as well as the percentage of total revenue and change from the prior year.
For the Three Months Ended March 31,
Change in
Revenues
2021
2020
(Dollars in thousands)
Revenue
% of Total
Revenue
% of Total
$
%
Products Revenue
$ 10,311 91% $ 2,694 80% $ 7,617 283%
Services Revenue
1,002 9% 691 20% 311 45%
Total Revenue
$ 11,313 100% $ 3,385 100% $ 7,928 234%
Total revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 was $11.3 million and $3.4 million, respectively, an increase of $7.9 million, or 234%. The increase in total revenue was attributable to an increase in revenue from both products and services.
We sold more products during the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to three months ended March 31, 2020, leading to an approximately 283% increase in product revenue. This was primarily due to product revenue from EnvisionTEC following the close of this acquisition. Additionally, we shipped more units during the first quarter of 2021 compared to the first quarter of 2020. For the three months ended March 31, 2020, we experienced decreased customer demand and longer sales cycles resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, as a result of customer facilities closures associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, we experienced delays in shipments and installation as well as decreased utilization of our installed products, leading to a decrease in sales of consumable materials.
Services revenue increased during the three months ended March 31, 2021, as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2020, primarily due to an increase in support and installation revenue from increased shipments during the period.
The following table presents revenue by geographic region, as well as the percentage of total revenue and change from the prior period.
 
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For the Three Months Ended March 31,
Change in
Revenue
2021
2020
(Dollars in thousands)
Revenue
% of Total
Revenue
% of Total
$
%
Americas $ 6,559 58% $ 1,229 36% $ 5,330 434%
EMEA (Europe, the Middle East and Africa)
2,741 24% 1,851 55% 890 48%
APAC (Asia-Pacific)
2,013 18% 305 9% 1,708 560%
Total Revenue
$ 11,313 100% $ 3,385 100% $ 7,928 234%
Total revenue increased due to increased product sales in the Americas, EMEA and APAC regions driven by acquisition of EnvisionTEC, diversification in our product mix, and increased customer demand during the period ended March 31, 2021. Customer demand was lower during the three months ended March 31, 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Cost of Sales
Total cost of sales during March 31, 2021 and 2020 was $11.9 million and $6.2 million, respectively, an increase of $5.7 million or 92%. The increase in total cost of sales was driven primarily by an increase in product cost of sales, which resulted from greater product sales. Additionally, costs of sales increased $1.1 million due to amortization from intangible assets acquired in the EnvisionTEC acquisition that is included in cost of sales.
Gross Loss and Gross Margin
The following table presents gross loss by revenue stream, as well as change in gross loss dollars from the prior period.
For the Three Months Ended March 31,
Change in
Gross Profit
2021
2020
(Dollars in thousands)
Gross Profit (Loss)
$
%
Products
$ (176) $ (2,347) $ 2,171 93%
Services
(411) (472) 61 13%
Total $ (587) $ (2,819) $ 2,232 79%
Total gross loss during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 was $0.6 million and $2.8 million, respectively. The decrease in gross loss of $2.2 million is driven by the EnvisionTEC acquisition, as well as our more diverse product mix sold during the three months ended March 31, 2021, compared to only one product shipping during the three months ended March 31, 2020. Negative gross profit during these periods was the result of higher system costs than selling price, primarily driven by a combination of small purchase quantities for systems and consumables from our third-party contract manufacturers, resulting in higher costs, and the selection of suppliers influenced by time-to-market considerations instead of cost considerations.
 
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The following table presents gross margin by revenue stream, as well as the change in gross margin from the prior period.
For the Three Months Ended March 31,
Change in Gross
Margin
2021
2020
(Dollars in thousands)
Gross Margin
Percentage Points
%
Products
(2)% (87)% 0.85 98%
Services
(41)% (68)% 0.27 40%
Total (5)% (83)% 0.78 94%
Total gross margin for three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 was (5)% and (83)%, respectively. The increase in total gross margin was primarily due to the increase in gross margin from our product revenue, which resulted from a lower product cost for units shipped in the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to three months ended March 31, 2020.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 were $10.9 million and $12.3 million, respectively, a decrease of $1.4 million, or 11%. The decrease in research and development expenses was primarily due to a $1.0 million decrease in engineering consulting and prototyping costs related to the maturation of our product development efforts. Additionally, compensation costs decreased $0.5 million as a result of a reduction in headcount due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expenses during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 were $5.4 million and $4.5 million, respectively, an increase of $0.9 million, or 20%. The increase in sales and marketing expenses was primarily due to increased expense related to EnvisionTEC, partially offset by a reduction in trade show and related travel expenses and marketing headcount during the three months ended March 31, 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 were $13.8 million and $2.6 million, respectively, an increase of $11.2 million, or 431%. The increase in general and administrative expenses was primarily due to an increase of $7.5 million of professional fees incurred as a result of merger and acquisition activity and costs related to operating as a public company. Additionally, compensation costs increased by $1.5 million, related to hiring to support public company requirements.
Change in Fair Value of Warrant Liability
Change in fair value of warrant liability during the three months ended March 31, 2021, and 2020, were a $56.6 million loss and $0, respectively. The decrease in fair value is the result of the remeasurement of the Private Placement Warrant liability prior to the cashless exercise of the Private Placement Warrants. The warrant liability increased $56.6 million as a result of the remeasurement, which resulted in the $56.6 million loss. As of March 31, 2021, all Private Placement Warrants were exercised and there was no outstanding warrant liability.
Interest Expense
Interest expense during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 was $0.1 million in both periods.
Interest and Other Income, Net
Interest and other income, net during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 and was $0.4 million and $0.6 million, respectively, a decrease of $0.2 million, or 33%. Interest income decreased primarily due to a decrease in cash available for investment.
 
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Income Taxes
We recorded an income tax benefit of $27.9 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021 compared to no provision for the three months ended March 31, 2020. The increase was due to the partial release of the valuation allowance related to the deferred tax liability acquired in the EnvisionTEC acquisition.
We have provided a valuation allowance for all of our deferred tax assets as a result of our historical net losses in the jurisdictions in which we operate, except for Germany. We continue to assess our future taxable income by jurisdiction based on our recent historical operating results, the expected timing of reversal of temporary differences, various tax planning strategies that we may be able to enact in future periods, the impact of potential operating changes on our business and our forecast results from operations in future periods based on available information at the end of each reporting period. To the extent that we are able to reach the conclusion that deferred tax assets are realizable based on any combination of the above factors in a single, or multiple, taxing jurisdictions, a reversal of the related portion of our existing valuation allowances may occur.
Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019
Revenue
The following table presents the revenue of each of our revenue streams, as well as the percentage of total revenue and change from the prior year.
For the Years Ended December 31,
Change in Revenues
2020
2019
(Dollars in thousands)
Revenue
% of Total
Revenue
% of Total
$
%
Product Revenue
$ 13,718 83% $ 22,758 86% $ (9,040) (40)%
Service Revenue
2,752 17% 3,681 14% (929) (25)%
Total Revenue
$ 16,470 100% $ 26,439 100% $ (9,969) (38)%
Total revenue for the years ended years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 was $16.5 million and $26.4 million, respectively, a decrease of $9.9 million, or 38%. The decrease in total revenue was attributable to a decrease in revenue from both products and services.
We sold fewer products during the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, leading to an approximately 40% decrease in product revenue. This was primarily due to decreased customer demand and longer sales cycles resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, as a result of customer facilities closures associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, we experienced delays in shipments and installation as well as decreased utilization of our installed products, leading to a decrease in sales of consumable materials.
Service revenue decreased during the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, primarily due to a decrease in support and installation revenue from decreased shipments during the period.
The following table presents revenue by geographic region, as well as the percentage of total revenue and change from the prior period.
 
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For the Years Ended December 31,
Change in Revenues
2020
2019
(Dollars in thousands)
Revenue
% of Total
Revenue
% of Total
$
%
Americas
$ 6,665 40% $ 15,801 60% $ (9,136) (58)%
EMEA (Europe, the Middle East and Africa)
7,788 47% 8,993 34% (1,205) (13)%
APAC (Asia-Pacific)
2,017 12% 1,645 6% 372 23%
Total Revenue
$ 16,470 100% $ 26,439 100% $ (9,969) (38)%
Total revenue decreased due to fewer product sales in the Americas and EMEA regions driven by decreased customer demand resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. This decrease was partially offset by increased sales in the APAC region, driven primarily by an improvement in hardware product volume sold in the region during the year ended December 31, 2020.
Cost of Sales
Total cost of sales during the years ended years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 was $31.5 million and $50.8 million, respectively, a decrease of $19.3 million or 38%. The decrease in total cost of sales was driven primarily by a decrease in product cost of sales, which resulted from fewer product sales. This decrease was partially offset by an increase to our inventory reserves. During 2020, we recognized a $2.9 million obsolescence inventory charge related to product redesigns implemented to reduce costs and enhance performance and functionality.
Gross Loss and Gross Margin
The following table presents gross loss by revenue stream, as well as change in gross loss dollars from the prior period.
For the Years Ended December 31,
Change in
Gross Loss
2020
2019
(Dollars in thousands)
Gross Loss
$
%
Products
$ (13,227) $ (22,510) $ 9,283 41%
Services
(1,822) (1,847) 25 1%
Total $ (15,049) $ (24,357) $ 9,308 38%
Total gross loss during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 was $15.0 million and $24.4 million, respectively. The decrease in gross loss of $9.3 million is driven by the fact that we sold less units during the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. Negative gross profit during these periods was the result of higher system costs than selling price, primarily driven by a combination of small purchase quantities for systems and consumables from our third-party contract manufacturers, resulting in higher costs, and the selection of suppliers influenced by time-to-market considerations instead of just cost considerations.
The following table presents gross margin by revenue stream, as well as the change in gross margin from the prior period.
For the Years Ended December 31,
Change in
Gross Margin
2020
2019
(Dollars in thousands)
Gross Margin
Percentage Points
%
Products
(96)% (99)% 0.03 3%
Services
(66)% (50)% (0.16) (32)%
Total (91)% (92)% 0.01 1%
Total gross margin for the years ended December 31, 2020, and 2019 was (91)% and (92)%, respectively. The increase in total gross margin was primarily due to the increase in gross margin from our product revenue,
 
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which resulted from a lower product cost for units shipped in 2020 as compared to 2019. This was partially offset by an obsolescence inventory charge related to product redesigns implemented to reduce costs and enhance performance and functionality.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were $43.1 million and $54.7 million, respectively, a decrease of $11.6 million, or 21%. The decrease in research and development expenses was primarily due to a $5.0 million decrease in prototyping costs related to the maturation of our product development efforts. Additionally, during the year ended December 31, 2020, we reduced engineering consulting expenses and headcount to mitigate the impacts and uncertainties around COVID-19 as described in the “Recent Developments” section above, resulting in savings of $3.9 million $3.2 million, respectively. These expense reductions were partially offset by common stock warrant expense associated with product development of $1.7 million.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expenses during the years ended years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were $13.1 million and $18.8 million, respectively, a decrease of $5.7 million, or 30%. The decrease in sales and marketing expenses was primarily due to a reduction in trade show and related travel expenses and marketing headcount during the year ended December 31, 2020 to mitigate the impacts of, and uncertainties around, the COVID-19 pandemic as described in the “Recent Developments” section above, resulting in savings of $2.0 million and $0.9 million, respectively. During the year ended December 31, 2020, there was a decrease in third party commissions of $1.0 million resulting from our shift towards a reseller model for our distribution network, as compared to the prior sales agent model.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were $20.7 million and $11.3 million, respectively, an increase of $9.4 million, or 83%. The increase in general and administrative expenses was primarily due to an increase of $5.4 million of professional fees incurred as a result of the Business Combination and costs related to operating as a public company, $2.5 million increase in compensation costs related to the modification of certain equity based awards and $0.6 increase in compensation costs, related to hiring to support public company requirements.
Interest Expense
Interest expense during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 was $0.3 million and $0.5 million, respectively, a decrease of $0.2 million, or 40%. The decrease resulted from a decrease in the variable interest rate paid on our term loan.
Interest and Other Income, Net
Interest and other income, net during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 and was $1.0 million and $6.0 million, respectively, a decrease of $5.0 million, or 83%. Interest income decreased primarily due to a decrease in cash available for investment.
Income Taxes
We recorded an income tax benefit during the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to no provision for the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase was due to the acquisition of acquired technology treated as a stock acquisition for tax purposes and an asset acquisition in accordance with GAAP.
We have provided a valuation allowance for all of our deferred tax assets as a result of our historical net losses in the jurisdictions in which we operate. We continue to assess our future taxable income by jurisdiction based on our recent historical operating results, the expected timing of reversal of temporary differences, various tax planning strategies that we may be able to enact in future periods, the impact of potential operating changes on our business and our forecast results from operations in future periods based
 
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on available information at the end of each reporting period. To the extent that we are able to reach the conclusion that deferred tax assets are realizable based on any combination of the above factors in a single, or multiple, taxing jurisdictions, a reversal of the related portion of our existing valuation allowances may occur.
Non-GAAP Financial Information
In addition to our results determined in accordance with GAAP, we believe the below non-GAAP financial measures are useful in evaluating our operational performance. We use this non-GAAP financial information to evaluate our ongoing operations and for internal planning and forecasting purposes. We believe that this non-GAAP financial information, when taken collectively, may be helpful to investors in assessing our operating performance.
The non-GAAP financial information excludes, as applicable, stock-based compensation expense, amortization of acquired intangible assets included in cost of sales, acquisition-related and other transactional charges included in general and administrative expense, and change in fair value of warrant liability. These items are normally included in the comparable measures calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP. Our management excludes these items when evaluating our ongoing performance and/or evaluating earnings potential, and therefore excludes them when presenting non-GAAP financial measures. Management uses non-GAAP financial measures to supplement our GAAP results.
Stock-based compensation is a non-cash expense relating to stock-based awards issued to executive officers, employees, and outside directors, consisting of options and restricted stock units. We exclude this expense because it is a non-cash expense and we assess our internal operations excluding this expense and believe it facilitates comparisons to the performance of other companies in our industry.
Amortization of acquired intangible assets is a non-cash expense that is impacted by the timing and magnitude of our acquisitions. We believe the assessment of our operations excluding these costs is relevant to our assessment of internal operations and to comparisons with the performance of other companies in our industry.
Acquisition-related and other transactional charges included in general and administrative expenses are direct costs related to potential and completed acquisitions, including transaction fees, due diligence costs, severance, professional fees, and integration activities. Other transactional charges include third-party costs related to structuring unusual transactions. The occurrence and amount of these costs will vary depending on the timing and size of acquisitions. We believe excluding acquisition-related costs facilitates the comparison of our financial results to our historical operating results and to other companies in our industry.
Change in fair value of warrant liability is a non-cash gain or loss impacted by the fair value of the Private Placement Warrants. We believe the assessment of our operations excluding this activity is relevant to our assessment of internal operations and to comparisons with the performance of other companies in our industry.
We use the below non-GAAP financial measures, and we believe that they assist our investors, to make period-to-period comparisons of our operational performance because they provide a view of our operating results without items that are not, in our view, indicative of our core operating results. We believe that these non-GAAP financial measures help illustrate underlying trends in our business, and we use the measures to establish budgets and operational goals for managing our business and evaluating our performance. We believe that providing non-GAAP financial measures also affords investors a view of our operating results that may be more easily compared to the results of other companies in our industry that use similar financial measures to supplement their GAAP results.
The items excluded from the non-GAAP financial measures often have a material impact on our financial results and such items often recur. Accordingly, the non-GAAP financial measures included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be considered in addition to, and not as a substitute for, the comparable measures prepared in accordance with GAAP. The following tables reconcile each of these non- GAAP financial measures to its most closely comparable GAAP measure in our financial statements.
 
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For the Three Months Ended
March 31,
(Dollars in thousands)
2021
2020
GAAP gross margin
$ (587) $ (2,819)
Stock-based compensation included in cost of sales
117 100
Amortization of acquired intangible assets included in cost of sales
1,091
Non-GAAP gross margin
$ 621 $ (2,719)
GAAP operating loss
$ (30,740) $ (22,278)
Stock-based compensation
2,217 1,259
Amortization of acquired intangible assets included in cost of sales
1,091
Amortization of acquired intangibles assets
1,208 164
Acquisition-related and other transactional charges included in general and administrative expenses
4,984
Non-GAAP operating loss
$ (21,240) $ (20,855)
GAAP net loss
$ (59,108) $ (21,804)
Stock-based compensation
2,217 1,259
Amortization of acquired intangible assets included in cost of sales
1,091
Amortization of acquired intangibles assets
1,208 164
Acquisition-related and other transactional charges included in general and administrative expenses
4,984
Change in fair value of warrant liability
56,576
Non-GAAP net loss .
$ 6,968 $ (20,381)
We define “EBITDA” as net loss plus net interest income, provision for income taxes, depreciation and amortization expense.
We define “Adjusted EBITDA” as EBITDA adjusted for change in fair value of warrant liability, stock-based compensation expense, warrant expense, and transaction costs associated with acquisitions.
We believe that the use of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA provides an additional tool for investors to use in evaluating ongoing operating results and trends because it eliminates the effect of financing, capital expenditures, and non-cash expenses such as stock-based compensation and warrants, and provides investors with a means to compare our financial measures with those of comparable companies, which may present similar non-GAAP financial measures to investors. However, you should be aware that when evaluating EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA we may incur future expenses similar to those excluded when calculating these measures. In addition, our presentation of these measures should not be construed as an inference that our future results will be unaffected by unusual or non-recurring items. Our computation of these measures, especially Adjusted EBITDA, may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures computed by other companies because not all companies calculate these measures in the same fashion.
Because of these limitations, EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for performance measures calculated in accordance with GAAP. We compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our GAAP results and using EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA on a supplemental basis. You should review the reconciliation of net loss to EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA below and not rely on any single financial measure to evaluate our business.
 
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The following table reconciles net loss to EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020:
For the Three Months Ended
March 31,
(Dollars in thousands)
2021
2020
Net loss attributable to common stockholders
$ (59,108) $ (21,804)
Interest (income) expense, net
(42) (478)
Income tax benefit
(27,920)
Depreciation and amortization
3,892 2,321
EBITDA (83,178) (19,961)
Change in fair value of warrant liability
56,576
Stock compensation expense
2,217 1,259
Warrant expense
139
Transaction costs associated with acquisitions
4,984
Adjusted EBITDA
$ (19,401) $ (18,563)
The following table reconciles net loss to EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA during the years ended years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively:
For the Years Ended
December 31,
(Dollars in thousands)
2020
2019
Net loss attributable to common stockholders
$ (34,015) $ (103,596)
Interest (income) expense, net
(610) (3,993)
Income tax benefit
(940)
Depreciation and amortization
8,589 8,087
EBITDA (26,976) (99,502)
Change in fair value of warrant liability
(56,417)
Stock compensation expense
8,006 5,215
Warrant expense
1,915 1,038
Adjusted EBITDA
$ (73,472) $ (93,249)
Liquidity and Capital Resources
We have incurred a net loss in each of our annual periods since our inception. We incurred net losses of $59.1 million and $21.8 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. As of March 31, 2021, we had $572.2 million in cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments. As noted in the “Recent Developments” section above, we completed the Business Combination in December 2020. We received $534.6 million net cash proceeds as a result of the transaction. Additionally, during the three months ended March 31, 2021, we received $170.7 million in net cash proceeds from the exercise of public warrants. We expect both to support our operations and investments in the near term.
Since inception, we have received cumulative net proceeds from the Business Combination and the sale of our preferred and common stock of $973.4 million to fund our operations. As of March 31, 2021, our principal sources of liquidity were our cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments of $572.2 million which are principally invested in money market funds and fixed income instruments.
In June 2018, we entered into a three-year, $20.0 million term loan, which provided $10.0 million immediately with the remaining principal balance available to be drawn in up to three draws of not less than $2.0 million for 12 months from close of the facility. We entered into this loan to fund capital expenditures associated with our corporate office. Interest is calculated using the Wall Street Journal Prime rate less 50 basis
 
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points, payable monthly in arrears. If our cash and investments fall below $30.0 million, cash equal to the total outstanding amount of the debt is required to be placed in a money market account. In connection with this loan, we are also subject to periodic reporting requirements, and the lender has a first priority lien on all assets. Repayment terms include interest only payments for 36 months, with the principal coming due in June 2021.
In April 2020, we received loan proceeds in the amount of approximately $5.4 million under the Paycheck Protection Program, or the “PPP”). The PPP, established as part of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act, provides for loans to qualifying businesses. We repaid the loan in its entirety on May 13, 2020.
In connection with the acquisition of EnvisionTEC, the Company acquired $1.2 million in PPP loans. Under the terms of the CARES Act, PPP loan recipients can apply for forgiveness for all or a portion of the loan which is dependent upon the Company having initially qualified for the loan. Furthermore, the loan is subject to forgiveness to the extent loan proceeds are used for payroll costs, certain rents, utilities, and mortgage interest expense. The PPP loan has a maturity date of April 3, 2022 and an interest rate of 1%. Principal and interest are payable monthly commencing on a date determined by the lender following the determination of the amount of the PPP loan to be forgiven or potentially earlier, as determined under applicable Small Business Administration rules. The outstanding borrowings may be prepaid by the Company at any time prior to maturity with no prepayment penalties. As of March 31, 2021, the short-term loan balance is $1.0 million, and the long-term balance is $0.2 million. Subsequent to March 31, 2021, we were notified that the entire loan balance has been forgiven.
We believe that our existing capital resources will be sufficient to support our operating plan and cash commitments for at least the next 12 months. As of March 31, 2021, we had $416.4 million in cash and cash equivalents, and $155.8 million in short-term liquid investments. This liquid asset balance significantly exceeds our current liabilities of $39.4 million as of the same date. If we anticipate that our actual results will differ from our operating plan, we believe we have sufficient capabilities to enact cost savings measures to preserve capital.
We expect net losses to continue in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we continue to invest in commercialization and new product development. Additionally, we may engage in future acquisitions which may require additional capital.
Cash Flows
Cash Flows for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020
Since inception, we have primarily used proceeds from the Business Combination, issuances of preferred stock and debt instruments to fund our operations. The following table sets forth a summary of cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020:
For the Three Months Ended
March 31,
(Dollars in thousands)
2021
2020
Net cash used in operating activities
$ (41,129) $ (22,434)
Net cash used in investing activities
(182,053) 30,680
Net cash provided by financing activities
157,195 132
Net change in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash
$ (65,987) $ 8,378
Operating Activities
Net cash used in operating activities was $41.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, primarily consisting of $59.1 million of net losses, adjusted for non-cash items, which primarily included loss on change in fair value of warrant liability of $56.6 million, depreciation and amortization expense of $3.9 million and stock-based compensation expense of $2.2 million, as well as a $17.2 million increase in cash consumed by working capital. The increase in cash consumed by working capital was primarily driven by
 
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an increase in certain assets including inventory and prepaid expenses and other current assets, alongside a decrease in certain liabilities including accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities, and customer deposits. This increase in cash consumed by working capital was partially offset by an increase in certain liabilities customer deposits.
Net cash used in operating activities was $22.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020, primarily consisting of $21.8 million of net losses, adjusted for certain non-cash items, which primarily included depreciation and amortization expense of $2.3 million and stock-based compensation expense of $1.3 million, as well as a $4.1 million increase in cash consumed by working capital. The increase in cash consumed by working capital was primarily driven by an increase in certain assets including inventory alongside a decrease in certain liabilities including accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities, and deferred revenue. This increase in cash consumed by working capital was partially offset by a decrease in certain assets including accounts receivable and prepaid expenses and other current assets and an increase in certain liabilities including customer deposits.
The majority of our inventory consists of finished goods. Inventory balances may fluctuate during cycles of new product launch, commercialization and planned growth of production and sales of products.
Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities was $182.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, primarily consisting of $137.6 million net cash paid to acquire EnvisionTEC, and purchases of marketable securities of $92.4 million, offset by proceeds from sales and maturities of marketable securities of $48.2 million. We purchased $0.3 million of property and equipment.
Net cash used in investing activities was $30.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020, primarily consisting of purchases of marketable securities of $17.6 million, offset by proceeds from sales and maturities of marketable securities of $49.3 million, as well as purchases of property and equipment for $1.0 million.
Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities was $157.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, consisting primarily of proceeds from the exercise of public warrants.
Net cash provided by financing activities was $0.1 million for the three months ended December 31, 2020, consisting of proceeds from the exercise of employee stock options.
Since inception, we have primarily used proceeds from the Business Combination, issuances of preferred stock and debt instruments to fund our operations. The following table sets forth a summary of cash flows for the periods presented:
For the Years Ended
December 31,
(Dollars in thousands)
2020
2019
Net cash used in operating activities
$ (80,575) $ (97,202)
Net cash used in investing activities
(36,983) (26,032)
Net cash provided by financing activities
534,922 160,352
Net change in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash
$ 417,364 $ 37,118
Cash Flows for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019
Operating Activities
Net cash used in operating activities was $80.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, primarily consisting of $34.0 million of net losses, adjusted for non-cash items, which primarily included gain on change in fair value of warrant liability of $56.4 million, depreciation and amortization expense of $8.5 million, stock-based compensation expense of $8.0 million, and warrant expense of $1.9 million, as well as a
 
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$7.9 million increase in cash consumed by working capital. The increase in cash consumed by working capital was primarily driven by an increase in certain assets including accounts receivable and inventory alongside a decrease in certain liabilities including accounts payable. This increase in cash consumed by working capital was partially offset by an increase in certain liabilities including accrued expenses and other current liabilities and customer deposits.
Net cash used in operating activities was $97.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, primarily consisting of $103.6 million of net losses, adjusted for certain non-cash items, which primarily included depreciation and amortization expense of $8.1 million and stock-based compensation expense of $5.2 million, as well as a $5.3 million increase in cash consumed by working capital. The increase in cash consumed by working capital was primarily driven by an increase in certain assets including accounts receivable and inventory alongside a decrease in certain liabilities including accounts payable and deferred revenue. This increase in cash consumed by working capital was partially offset by an increase in certain liabilities including accrued expenses and other current liabilities.
The majority of our inventory consists of finished goods. Inventory balances may fluctuate during cycles of new product launch, commercialization and planned growth of production and sales of products.
Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities was $37 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, primarily consisting of purchases of marketable securities of $136.3 million, offset by proceeds from sales and maturities of marketable securities of $109.0 million. We also paid cash to acquire two companies, made an investment in a privately held company in the form of convertible debt in the amount of $3.0 million, and purchased $1.4 million of property and equipment.
Net cash used in investing activities was $26.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, primarily consisting of purchases of marketable securities of $215.6 million, offset by proceeds from sales and maturities of marketable securities of $196.8 million, as well as purchases of property and equipment for $6.9 million.
Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities was $534.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, consisting primarily of proceeds from the Business Combination and PIPE financing.
Net cash provided by financing activities was $160.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, consisting primarily of proceeds from the issuance of preferred stock.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We have no off-balance sheet arrangements and do not utilize any “structured debt,” “special purpose” or similar unconsolidated entities for liquidity or financing purposes.
Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Estimates
Our discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. Certain of our accounting policies require the application of judgment in selecting the appropriate assumptions for calculating financial estimates. By their nature, these judgments are subject to an inherent degree of uncertainty. We periodically evaluate the judgments and estimates used for our critical accounting policies to ensure that such judgments and estimates are reasonable for our interim and year-end reporting requirements. These judgments and estimates are based on our historical experience (where available), current trends and information available from other sources, as appropriate. If different conditions result from those assumptions used in our judgments, the results could be materially different from our estimates. We believe the following critical accounting policy requires significant judgments and estimates in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements:
 
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Revenue Recognition
We recognize revenue from sale of products upon transfer of control, which is generally at the point of shipment. Revenue from sale of services may be recognized over the life of the associated service contract or as services are performed, depending on the nature of the services being provided.
Our contracts with customers often include promises to transfer multiple products and services to the customer. Judgment is required to determine the separate performance obligations present in a given contract, which we have concluded are generally capable of being distinct and accounted for as separate performance obligations. We use standalone selling price, or SSP, to allocate revenue to each performance obligation. Significant judgment is required to determine the SSP for each distinct performance obligation in a contract.
We began generating revenue in the fourth quarter of 2018, and as such, we have had limited standalone sales of our products and services. The absence of observable prices resulting from our relatively short period of revenue generation requires us to estimate the SSPs of distinct performance obligations in a given contract.
We determine SSP using market conditions and other observable inputs. We typically have more than one SSP for individual products and services due to the stratification of our customers. The SSP generally varies by size of the customer. Our determination of SSP may change in the future as standalone sales of products and services occur, providing observable prices.
Stock-Based Compensation
We have applied the fair value recognition provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, Topic 718 Compensation-Stock Compensation to account for the stock-based compensation for employees and non-employees. We recognize compensation costs related to stock options granted to employees and non-employees based on estimated fair value of the award on the date of grant. Described below is the methodology we have utilized in measuring stock- based compensation expense.
Determining the amount of stock-based compensation to be recorded requires us to develop estimates of the fair value of stock-based awards as of their measurement date. We recognize stock-based compensation expense over the requisite service period, which is the vesting period of the award. Calculating the fair value of stock-based awards requires that we make highly subjective assumptions. We use the Black-Scholes option pricing model to value our stock option awards. Use of this valuation methodology requires that we make assumptions as to the volatility of our common stock, the fair value of our common stock on the measurement date, the expected term of our stock options, the risk-free interest rate for a period that approximates the expected term of our stock options and our expected dividend yield. Because we have a limited operating history, we utilize data from a representative group of publicly traded companies to estimate the expected stock price volatility. We selected representative companies from the additive manufacturing industry with characteristics similar to us. We use the simplified method as prescribed by the SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 107, Share-Based Payment as we do not have sufficient historical stock option activity data to provide a reasonable basis upon which to estimate the expected term of stock options granted to employees and non-employees. For our August 5, 2020 grants we were precluded from using the simplified method, therefore expected term for this grant was based on forecasted exercises. We utilize a dividend yield of zero based on the fact that we have never paid and are not expected to pay cash dividends. The risk-free interest rate used for each grant is an interpolated rate to match the term assumption based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve as of the valuation date.
The following table presents the dates of stock options that we granted or modified from the earliest presented period in these financial statements through December 31, 2020 with the corresponding exercise price for each option grant or modifications and our current estimate of the fair value per option on each grant or modification date, which we utilize to calculate stock-based compensation expense.
 
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Grant Date
Number of
Share Options
Granted
Exercise Price
per Share
Estimated Fair
Value per Share
of Common Stock
Weighted-Average
Estimated Fair
Value per Share
of Options
March 1, 2019
1,555,218 $ 3.34 $ 3.34 $ 1.76
May 8, 2019
1,137,463 $ 3.34 $ 3.34 $ 1.75
September 18, 2019
723,103 $ 3.34 $ 3.34 $ 1.70
November 13, 2019
701,957 $ 3.34 $ 3.34 $ 1.71
March 12, 2020
473,625 $ 3.34 $ 3.34 $ 1.65
June 11, 2020
4,176,283 $ 1.40 $ 1.40 $ 0.70
July 14, 2020
3,087,308 $ 1.40 $ 7.98 $ 6.87
August 5, 2020
713,803 $ 1.40 $ 7.98 $ 6.78
Determination of the fair value of Common Stock on Grant Dates
Prior to the Business Combination on December 9, 2020, there was no public market for our equity instruments to date, as a result, the estimated fair value of our common stock has historically been determined by our board of directors as of the grant date with input from management, considering our most recently available third-party valuations of common stock and our board of directors’ assessment of additional objective and subjective factors that the board believed were relevant and which may have changed from the date of the most recent valuation through the date of grant. We engaged an independent third-party valuation specialist to perform contemporaneous valuations of our common stock in connection with each of our convertible preferred stock issuances and as of June 30, 2019, December 31, 2019, March 31, 2020, and August 20, 2020. The valuations were performed in accordance with the guidance outlined in the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, or AICPA, Practice Aid, Valuation of Privately-Held Company Equity Securities Issued as Compensation. The independent third-party valuation specialist considered all objective and subjective factors that it believed to be relevant for each valuation conducted in accordance with AICPA’s Practice Aid, including our best estimate of our business condition, prospects, and operating performance at each valuation date. Other significant factors included:

The rights and preferences of our preferred stock as compared to those of our common stock, including liquidation preferences of preferred stock;

Our results of operations and financial position;

Our stage of development and business strategy and the material risks related to our business and industry;

The composition of, and changes to, our management team and board of directors;

The lack of liquidity of our common stock;

The valuation of publicly traded peer companies; and

The likelihood of achieving a liquidity event for the holders of our common stock and stock options, given prevailing market conditions
The dates of the contemporaneous valuations have not always coincided with the date of our stock option grants. In determining the exercise price of the stock options set forth in the table above, our board of directors considered, among other things, the most recent contemporaneous valuation of our common stock and their assessment of additional objective and subjective factors that were relevant as of the grant dates. These factors include the current operating performance of the Company, assumptions regarding the future operating performance of the Company, and the likelihood of achieving a liquidity event in the capital markets. If we had made different assumptions, our stock-based compensation expense, net loss, and net loss per share applicable to common stockholders could have been materially different.
Following the Business Combination, the fair value of the entity’s common stock is determined based on the quoted market price of the entity’s common stock.
 
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Business Combinations
We account for business combinations using the acquisition method of accounting, which requires that the assets acquired and liabilities assumed be recorded at their respective estimated fair values as of the acquisition date. The excess of the fair value of the purchase consideration over the fair values of these identifiable assets and liabilities is recorded as goodwill. While we use our best estimates and judgments, our estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. During the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, we may record adjustments to the fair value of these tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with the corresponding offset to goodwill. We continue to collect information and reevaluate these estimates and assumptions quarterly and record any adjustments to our preliminary estimates to goodwill provided that we are within the measurement period.
The judgments made in determining the estimated fair value assigned to the assets acquired, as well as the estimated useful life of each asset, can materially impact the consolidated statements of operations of the periods subsequent to the acquisition through depreciation and amortization, and in certain instances through impairment charges, if the asset becomes impaired in the future. In determining the estimated fair value for intangible assets, we typically utilize the income approach, which discounts the projected future net cash flow using a discount rate deemed appropriate by management that reflects the risks associated with such projected future cash flow. Significant estimates and assumptions include revenue growth rates, royalty rates, discount rates, and tax amortization benefit. Determining the useful life of an intangible asset also requires judgment, as different types of intangible assets will have different useful lives and certain assets may even be considered to have indefinite useful lives.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Information regarding recent accounting pronouncements is included in “Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” to our consolidated financial statements in this prospectus.
Background and Remediation of Material Weakness
In connection with our evaluation of disclosure controls and procedures covering our consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2020, we identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. We have concluded that material weaknesses exist in our evaluation of disclosure controls and procedures, including internal control over financial reporting, as we do not have the necessary business processes, personnel and related internal controls to operate in a manner to satisfy the accounting and financial reporting requirements of a public company. These material weaknesses primarily manifested in the improper segregation of duties relating to the recording of journal entries and the reconciliation of key accounts, as well as the analysis of certain transactions and accounts, and the safeguarding of assets. We identified an additional material weakness related to the design and operating effectiveness of controls over our accounting for significant and complex accounting matters.
We are focused on designing and implementing effective internal controls measures to improve our evaluation of disclosure controls and procedures, including internal control over financial reporting, and remediate the material weaknesses. In order to remediate these material weaknesses, we have taken and plan to take the following actions:

the hiring and continued hiring of additional accounting, finance and legal resources with public company experience; and

implementation of additional review controls and processes requiring timely account reconciliation and analyses of certain transactions and accounts.
These actions and planned actions are subject to ongoing evaluation by management and will require testing and validation of design and operating effectiveness of internal controls over financial reporting over future periods. We are committed to the continuous improvement of our internal control over financial reporting and will continue to review the internal controls over financial reporting.
 
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BUSINESS
Company Overview
Desktop Metal is pioneering a new generation of additive manufacturing technologies focused on Additive Manufacturing 2.0, the volume production of end-use parts. We offer a comprehensive portfolio of integrated additive manufacturing solutions comprised of hardware, software, materials and services, with support for metals, composites, polymers, ceramics, sands, biocompatible materials, wood and elastomers. Our solutions span use cases across the product life cycle, from product development to mass production and aftermarket operations, and they address an array of industries, including automotive, healthcare and dental, consumer products, heavy industry, aerospace, machine design and research and development.
At Desktop Metal, we believe additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is one of the most exciting and transformational technology innovations of our time. According to the Wohlers Report 2020 and management estimates, the global additive manufacturing market, which includes spending on systems, materials, parts and other 3D printing software and services, is expected to grow from $12 billion in 2019 to $146 billion in 2030 at a compound annual growth rate of approximately 25%. Additive manufacturing has the capacity to change the way parts of nearly all materials are designed, manufactured and sold around the world, and it provides businesses of all sizes the means to make high performance products faster, more sustainably, and at costs and volumes competitive with conventional manufacturing processes. Our mission is to make additive manufacturing accessible to all engineers, designers and manufacturers. In doing so, we believe we will empower businesses to adopt radical, new approaches to design and production and enable the success of many of the high growth industries that will drive global economic growth in the years to come.
Our growth strategy begins with a commitment to research and development. Since our founding in 2015, we have invested significant resources in research and development, including $10.9 million thus far in 2021, towards building an extensive portfolio of proprietary and differentiated technologies with a focus on making additive manufacturing an easy-to-use, economic and scalable solution. These technologies represent the cornerstones of our future product introductions and are critical to enhancing our existing offerings, and are supported by over 300 registered patents or pending patent applications. Our additive manufacturing platforms, which leverage these technologies for the production of end-use parts, enable business to address their specific goals through a range of solutions that span multiple price points, throughput levels and operating environments.
Our product platforms offer several key advantages over competitive additive manufacturing systems including breakthrough print speeds, competitive part costs, accessible workflows and software, turnkey solutions and support for over 225 qualified materials, the sale of which represent a recurring revenue stream from customers of our additive manufacturing systems in addition to system consumables and other services, such as installation, training and technical support. As a result of these strengths, our solutions are lowering the barriers to adopting additive manufacturing and unlocking new applications where conventional manufacturing has customarily held cost and volume advantages. Across printers, parts and materials, we intend to continue investing resources to develop advances and new technologies that allows us to serve a broader customer base and reach new verticals, thereby expanding our addressable market and driving adoption of Additive Manufacturing 2.0.
We leverage our core competencies in technology innovation and product development by marketing and selling our Additive Manufacturing 2.0 solutions through a leading global distribution network, managed and augmented by our own internal sales and marketing teams. This distribution network covers over 60 countries around the world and is composed of sales and distribution professionals with decades of experience in digital manufacturing technologies. Similarly, we leverage third-party contract manufacturers to scale up initial prototypes for commercialization and volume commercial shipments. Our internal manufacturing and supply chain teams work collaboratively with both our internal engineering department and these third-party contract manufacturers to scale up initial prototypes for commercialization and volume commercial shipments. Together, our distribution network and manufacturing approach allow us to produce, sell and service our products at-scale in global markets and creates substantial operating leverage as we execute our strategy.
 
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We are led by visionary technologists and a team of proven leaders with experience bringing emerging technologies to market across the hardware, materials and software sectors. Our technologies have the potential to empower engineers and designers to easily access additive manufacturing and drive new application discovery as well as provide manufacturers with reliable and high-performance solutions that facilitate the production of innovative designs in high volumes. We believe that, taken together, these core competencies will propel us towards helping businesses realize the true promise of Additive Manufacturing 2.0.
Industry Background
Conventional manufacturing processes have numerous shortcomings.
Historically, processes such as casting, stamping, molding and machining have dominated global manufacturing, which is a $12 trillion industry, according to estimates by A.T. Kearney. These conventional and subtractive manufacturing techniques have numerous limitations. Most require high upfront expenses in the form of tools, such as molds, dies, jigs or fixtures. Designing and manufacturing these tools can result in long lead times for parts as well as minimum volume requirements in order to achieve cost efficiencies. Tooling requirements associated with casting, stamping, and injection molding also leave little room for design iteration without increasing time-to-market and development costs. New parts and design changes often require a new tool, thereby slowing the pace at which businesses can introduce new products and react to shifts in market preferences and making it difficult to compete effectively. Computer numerical controlled machining, or CNC machining, is an alternative to stamping, casting and molding that does not require a mold or die, enabling lower-volume production with reduced lead times. However, because CNC machining is a subtractive process in which material is removed from a solid block to create a part, it typically results in higher part costs and significant material waste. In addition, the CNC machining process often requires heavy involvement from specialist technicians, and machine programming can be time intensive. Each of these conventional manufacturing processes also creates design restrictions that can result in significantly higher part weights and costs or require assemblies, adversely impacting performance in favor of manufacturability and driving additional manufacturing and supply chain complexity.
Additive manufacturing has the potential to address the limitations of conventional manufacturing.
Additive manufacturing addresses many of the limitations of conventional manufacturing through a combination of flexibility, ease of use and cost, making it an efficient and effective process across the product life cycle, from design and prototyping to production. Additive manufacturing is a digital manufacturing process that produces 3D objects from digital models through the repeated deposition of thin layers of material. This process eliminates the need for tooling inputs and provides a range of benefits including:

Accelerated time-to-market.   Businesses can manufacture design files at the push of a button with no tooling required. While design cycles for conventional manufacturing can take weeks or months, additive manufacturing can shorten this cycle to days due to the ability to rapidly switch between or iterate on designs without excessive delay. Such improvements in time-to-market for new products can help businesses react more rapidly to shifts in customer demand.

Design flexibility.   Conventional manufacturing can force design comprises as a result of subtractive manufacturing processes or the use of tools. While 3D printing may involve design guidelines primarily to reduce dependency on supports and optimize process success, designers generally have freedom to produce geometries not possible or economically feasible with conventional manufacturing. As an example, with additive manufacturing, designers can produce intricate organic or complex, lattice shapes that are optimized for strength and functional performance to reduce weight and material usage.

Assembly consolidation.   Improved design flexibility enables the consolidation of sub-assemblies into single parts, which can improve reliability by reducing the number of failure points in a product. Decreasing part quantity is also a productivity breakthrough for many businesses. With fewer unique parts to fabricate, procure, store and assemble, businesses can drastically simplify their supply chains.
 
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Mass customization.   Additive manufacturing enables the customization and production of designs at scale, eliminating costs traditionally associated with multiple tools and tooling changeover as well as reducing the risk of excess inventory and material obsolescence. Each part printed using additive manufacturing can be identical to or radically different from the other parts within a given print. Several end markets, including audiology and dental, have already leveraged mass customization through additive manufacturing to improve the aesthetics and performance of parts.

Supply chain re-engineering.   Additive manufacturing suitable for end-use parts production can improve supply chains by enabling on-demand manufacturing in distributed locations. Decentralized networks of additive manufacturing systems with low tooling and set-up costs can replace centralized facilities with conventional manufacturing equipment. In addition, producing parts near the point and time of demand can significantly reduce lead times, inventories, and dependencies on forecasting without incurring additional costs related to logistics and customs.