SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
The consolidated financial statements of the Company are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”) and pursuant to the regulations of the U.S Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. The functional currency of all wholly owned subsidiaries is U.S. Dollars. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of a disease caused by a novel strain of the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) to be a pandemic. As of December 31, 2020, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic continues to unfold and there has been uncertainty and disruption in the global economy and financial markets. The Company has considered the COVID-19 pandemic related impacts on its estimates, as appropriate, within its consolidated financial statements and there may be changes to those estimates in future periods.
The COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the response to mitigate the spread and effects of COVID-19, may impact the Company and its customers, as well as the demand for its products and services. The impact of COVID-19 on the Company’s operational results in subsequent periods will largely depend on future developments, and cannot be accurately predicted. These developments may include, but are not limited to, new information concerning the severity of COVID-19, the degree of success of actions take to contain or treat COVID-19 and the reactions by consumers, companies, governmental entities, and capital markets to such actions.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the Company’s management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions regarding uncertainties that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates and assumptions reflected in these consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, revenue recognition, collectability of receivables, realizability of inventory, goodwill, intangibles, stock-based compensation, and fair values of common stock. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and various other factors believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities. The Company assesses estimates on an ongoing basis; however, actual results could materially differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of standard checking accounts, money market accounts and certain investments. The Company classifies any marketable security with an original maturity date of 90 days or less at the time of purchase as a cash equivalent.
The Company invests its excess cash in fixed income instruments denominated and payable in U.S. dollars including U.S. treasury securities, commercial paper, corporate bonds and asset-backed securities in accordance with the Company’s investment policy that primarily seeks to maintain adequate liquidity and preserve capital. Short-term investments represent holdings of available-for-sale marketable securities in accordance with the Company’s investment policy and cash management strategy. Investments in marketable securities are recorded at fair value, with any unrealized gains and losses reported within accumulated other comprehensive income as a separate component of stockholders’ equity until realized or until a determination is made that an other-than-temporary decline in market value has occurred. When such reductions occur, the cost of the investment is adjusted to fair value through recording a loss on investments in the consolidated statements of operations. All investments mature within one year.
The Company maintains a letter of credit for the benefit of the landlord for their office facility. The issuer of the letter of credit requires the Company to maintain a deposit in the amount of $0.6 million to secure the letter, which is reported as restricted cash in the consolidated balance sheets. This letter of credit automatically renews every year until it matures on February 7, 2024; therefore, it is classified as long term in nature at December 31, 2020 and 2019.
The Company’s financial instruments are comprised of cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, restricted cash, accounts receivable and accounts payable. The Company’s other current financial assets and current financial liabilities have fair values that approximate their carrying values due to the short maturity of these balances.
Product Revenue and Service Revenue
Product revenue include sales of the Company’s additive manufacturing systems as well as sale of related accessories and consumables. These consumables are primarily comprised of materials, which are used by the printers during the printing process to produce parts. Certain on-device software is embedded with the hardware and sold with the product bundle and is included within product revenue. Revenue from products is recognized upon transfer of control, which is generally at the point of shipment.
Services revenue consists of installation, training, and post-installation hardware and software support, as well as various software solutions the Company offers to facilitate the design of parts and operation of the Company’s products. The Company offers multiple software products, which are licensed through either a cloud-based solution and/or an on-device software subscription, depending on the product. For the cloud-based solution, the Company typically provides an annual subscription that the customer does not have the right to take possession of and is renewable at expiration. The revenue from the cloud-based solution is recognized ratably over the annual term as the Company considers the services provided under the cloud-based solution to be a series of distinct performance obligations, as the Company provides continuous daily access to the cloud solution. For on-device software subscriptions, the Company typically recognizes revenue once the customer has been given access to the software. When the Company enters into development contracts, control of the development service is transferred over time, and the related revenue is recognized as services are performed.
Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration expected to be received in exchange for transferring goods or providing services. The amount of consideration is typically a fixed price at the contract inception. Consideration from shipping and handling is recorded on a gross basis within product revenue.
The Company determines revenue recognition through the following steps:
•Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer
•Identification of the performance obligations in the contract
•Determination of the transaction price
•Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract
•Recognition of revenue when, or as, the Company satisfies a performance obligation
Nature of Products and Services
The Company sells its products primarily through authorized resellers, independent sales agents, and its own sales force. Revenue from hardware and consumables is recognized upon transfer of control, which is generally at the point of shipment.
The Company’s post-installation support is primarily sold through one-year annual contracts and such revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the agreement. Service revenue from installation and training is recognized as performed.
The Company’s terms of sale generally provide payment terms that are customary in the countries where the Company transacts business. To reduce credit risk in connection with certain sales, the Company may, depending upon the circumstances, require significant deposits or payment in full prior to shipment.
Due to the short-term nature of the Company’s contracts substantially all of the outstanding performance obligations are recognized within.
Shipping and handling activities that occur after control over a product has transferred to a customer are accounted for as fulfillment activities rather than performance obligations, as allowed under a practical expedient provided by ASC 606. The shipping and handling fees charged to customers are recognized as revenue and the related costs are included in cost of revenue at the point in time when ownership of the product is transferred to the customer. Sales taxes and value added taxes collected concurrently with revenue generating activities are excluded from revenue.
The Company enters into contracts with customers that can include various combinations of hardware products, software licenses, and services, which are distinct and accounted for as separate performance obligations. Products or services that are promised to a customer can be considered distinct if both of the following criteria are met: (i) the customer can benefit from the products or services either on its own or together with other readily available resources and (ii) the Company’s promise to transfer the products, software, or services to the customer is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract. Determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately versus together may require significant judgment.
Judgement is required to determine the standalone selling price (“SSP”). The transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation on a relative standalone selling price basis and revenue is recognized for each performance obligation when control has passed. In most cases, the Company is able to establish SSP based historical transaction data of the observable prices of hardware products sold separately in comparable circumstances to similar customers, observable renewal rates for software and post-installation support, and the Company’s best estimate of the selling price at which the Company would have sold the product regularly on a stand-alone basis for training and installation. The Company reassesses the SSP on a periodic basis or when facts and circumstances change.
The timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections results in billed accounts receivable, customer deposits and deferred revenues (contract liabilities) on the consolidated balance sheets. Timing of revenue recognition may differ from the timing of invoicing to customers. The Company records a receivable at the time of invoicing. For most contracts, customers are invoiced when products are shipped or when services are performed. The Company will typically bill in advance for post-installation support and cloud-based software licenses, resulting in deferred revenue.
The Company’s deferred revenue balance was $3.0 million and $2.2 million as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company recognized $2.2 million of deferred revenue from 2019. The deferred revenue consists primarily of billed post-installation support and cloud-based software licenses that are recognized ratably over the term of the agreement, as well as contracts that have outstanding performance obligations or contracts that have acceptance terms that have not yet been fulfilled.
When products have been delivered, but the product revenue associated with the arrangement has been deferred the Company includes the costs for the delivered items in deferred costs of sales on the consolidated balance sheets until recognition of the related revenue occurs, at which time it is recognized in cost of sales. The Company’s deferred cost of sales balance was $0.5 and $0.3 million as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
The Company’s contracts are primarily one year or less, so substantially all deferred revenue outstanding at the end of the fiscal year is recognized during the following year.
The Company primarily sells products through a reseller network. Under this arrangement, the reseller is determined to be the Company’s customer, and revenue is recognized based on the amounts the Company is entitled to, reduced by any payments owed to the resellers. On certain contracts, the Company utilizes external partners and an internal sales team to sell direct to the end user. The Company acts as a principal in the contracts with users when utilizing external partners because the Company controls the product, establishing the price, and bearing the risk of nonperformance, until it is transferred to the end user. The Company records the revenue on a gross basis and commissions are recorded as a sales and marketing expense in the statement of operations. The Company recognizes its commission expense as a point-in-time expense as contract obligations are primarily completed within a one-year contract period. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company paid $0.6 million and $0.4 million of commission expense, respectively.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
In evaluating the collectability of accounts receivable, the Company assesses a number of factors, including specific customers’ abilities to meet their financial obligations, the length of time receivables are past due, and historical collection experience. If circumstances related to specific customers change, or economic conditions deteriorate such that past collection experience is no longer relevant, the Company’s estimate of the recoverability of accounts receivable could be further reduced from the levels provided for in the consolidated financial statements.
The Company evaluates specific accounts for which it is believed a customer may have an inability to meet their financial obligations. In these cases, judgment is applied, based on available facts and circumstances, and a specific reserve is recorded for that customer to reduce the receivable to an amount expected to be collected. These specific reserves are reevaluated and adjusted as additional information is received that impacts the amount reserved.
As of December 31, 2020, and 2019, the Company has recorded $0.5 million and $0.2 million respectively, in allowance of doubtful accounts. In the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 the Company recorded bad debt expense of $0.4 million and $0.2 million, respectively.
Net Loss Per share
The Company presents basic and diluted loss per share amounts. Basic loss per share is calculated by dividing net loss available to holders of Common Stock by the weighted average number of shares of Common Stock outstanding during the applicable period.
The denominator for diluted earnings per share is a computation of the weighted-average number of ordinary shares and the potential dilutive ordinary shares outstanding during the period. Potential dilutive shares outstanding include the dilutive effect of in-the-money options and unvested Restricted Stock Agreements (“RSAs”), and unvested Restricted Stock Units (“RSUs”) using the treasury stock method. In periods in which the Company reports a net loss, diluted net loss per share is the same as basic net loss per share because dilutive shares are not assumed to have been issued if their effect is anti-dilutive.
See Note 20 for further information.
Substantially all of the Company’s hardware and software products are covered by a standard assurance warranty of one year, and estimated warranty obligations are recorded as an expense at the time or revenue recognition. In the event of a failure of hardware product or software covered by this warranty, the Company will repair or replace the software or hardware product. The Company’s warranty reserve reflects estimated material and labor costs for potential or actual product issues in its installed base for which the Company expects to incur an obligation. The Company periodically assesses the adequacy of the warranty reserve and adjusts the amount as necessary. If the data used to calculate the adequacy of the warranty reserve are not indicative of future requirements, additional or reduced warranty reserves may be required.
As of December 31, 2020, and 2019 the Company has recorded $1.6 million and $1.5 million, respectively, of warranty reserve within accrued expenses and other current liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets. Warranty reserve consisted of the following (in thousands):
Warranty reserve is recorded through cost of sales in the consolidated statements of operations.
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, determined on a first-in, first-out basis, and consists of the following (in thousands):
The Company provides for inventory losses based on obsolescence and levels in excess of forecasted demand. Inventory is reduced to the estimated net realizable value based on historical usage and expected demand.
Inventory provisions based on obsolescence and inventory in excess of forecasted demand are recorded through cost of sales in the consolidated statements of operations.
Concentrations of Credit Risk and Off-Balance-Sheet Risk
The Company has no significant off-balance-sheet risk, such as foreign exchange contracts, option contracts, or other foreign hedging arrangements. Financial instruments that potentially expose the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist mainly of cash and cash equivalents. The Company maintains its cash and cash equivalents principally with accredited financial institutions of high-credit standing.
As of December 31, 2020, and 2019, no single customer accounted for more than 10% of revenue. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, no single customer accounted for more than 10% of total accounts receivables.
Payments received from customers who have placed reservations or purchase orders in advance of shipment are refundable upon cancellation or non-delivery by the Company and are included within customer deposits on the consolidated balance sheets.
The Company periodically makes investments in companies within the additive manufacturing industry. The Company monitors events or changes in circumstances that may have a significant effect on the fair value of investments, either due to impairment or based on observable price changes, and records necessary adjustments.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is stated at cost. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred. When assets are retired or disposed of, the assets and related accumulated depreciation are eliminated from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss is included in the determination of net income or loss.
Depreciation is expensed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:
The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. The Company typically only includes an initial lease term in its assessment of a lease arrangement. Options to renew a lease are not included in the Company’s assessment unless there is reasonable certainty that the Company will renew. The Company assesses it plans to renew its material leases on an annual basis. Operating leases are included in other assets, current portion of lease liability, and lease liability, net of current portion on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets.
Right of use (“ROU”) assets and lease liabilities are recognized based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the expected remaining lease term. As the interest rate implicit in the Company’s leases is typically not readily determinable, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate for a similar term of lease payments based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of future payments.
The Company elected the short-term lease recognition and therefore, the Company does not recognize right of use assets or lease liabilities for leases with less than a twelve-month duration. The Company also elected the practical expedient to account for lease agreements which contain both lease and non-lease components as a single lease component.
The Company allocates the purchase price of acquired companies to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values. The Company generally values the identifiable intangible assets acquired using a discounted cash flow model. The significant estimates used in valuing certain of the intangible assets, include, but are not limited to future expected cash flows of the asset, discount rates to determine the present value of the future cash flows and expected technology life cycles. Intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful life; the period over which the Company anticipates generating economic benefit from the asset. Fair value adjustments subsequent to the acquisition date, that are not measurement period adjustments, are recognized in earnings.
Goodwill represents the future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired in a business combination that is not individually identified and separately recorded. The excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair value of net assets of businesses acquired in a business combination is recognized as goodwill. Goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment at least annually (as of the first day of the fourth quarter) or as circumstances indicate the value may no longer be recoverable. To assess if goodwill is impaired, the Company performs a qualitative assessment to determine whether further impairment testing is necessary. The Company then compares the carrying amount of the single reporting unit to the fair value of the reporting unit. An excess carrying value over fair value would indicate that goodwill may be impaired. The Company performed a qualitative assessment during its annual impairment review for 2020 as of October 1, 2020 and concluded that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the Company’s single reporting unit is not less than its carrying amount. Therefore, the two-step goodwill impairment test for the reporting unit was not necessary in 2020.
Intangible assets consist of identifiable intangible assets, including developed technology, resulting from the Company’s acquisitions. The Company evaluates definite-lived intangible assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. If indicators of impairment are present, the Company then compares the estimated undiscounted cash flows that the specific asset is expected to generate to its carrying value. If such assets are impaired, the impairment recognized is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its fair value. To date, there have been no impairments of intangible assets. Intangible assets are amortized over their useful life.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company evaluates whether events or circumstances have occurred that indicate that the estimated remaining useful life of its long-lived assets may warrant revision or that the carrying value of these assets may be impaired. The Company does not believe that any events have occurred through December 31, 2020, that would indicate its long-lived assets are impaired.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Research and development expense includes costs, primarily related to salaries and benefits for employees, prototypes and design expenses, incurred to develop intellectual property and is charged to expense as incurred.
Costs incurred internally in researching and developing a software product to be sold to customers are charged to expense until technological feasibility has been established for the product. Once technological feasibility is established, costs incurred during the application development phase are capitalized only when the Company believes it is probable the development will result in new or additional functionality, and such software costs are capitalized until the product is available for general release to customers. Judgment is required in determining when technological feasibility of a product is established. The Company has determined that technological feasibility for software products is reached after all high-risk development issues have been resolved through coding and testing. Generally, this occurs shortly before the products are released, such that there are no material costs to capitalize.
The Company capitalizes certain costs related to the development and implementation of cloud computing software. The types of costs capitalized during the application development phase include employee compensation, as well as consulting fees for third-party developers working on these projects. The capitalized costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the asset, which is typically 3 years.
Advertising expense is included within sales and marketing expense in the consolidated statements of operations and was $0.04 million and $0.1 million for the years ended years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. It primarily includes promotional expenditures and is expensed as incurred; as such, efforts have not met the direct-response criteria required for capitalization.
The Company accounts for all stock options granted to employees and nonemployees using a fair value method. The fair value of options on the date of grant is calculated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model based on key assumptions such as stock price, expected volatility and expected term. The Company’s estimates of these assumptions are primarily based on the fair value of the Company’s stock, historical data, peer company data and judgment regarding future trends and factors.
In determining the exercise prices for options granted, the Company’s Board of Directors has considered the fair value of the common stock as of the measurement date. Prior to the Business Combination, the fair value of the common stock has been determined by the Board of Directors at each award grant date based upon a variety of factors, including the results obtained from an independent third-party valuation, the Company’s financial position and historical financial performance, the status of technological developments within the Company’s proposed products, an evaluation or benchmark of the Company’s competition, the current business climate in the marketplace, the illiquid nature of the common stock, arm’s length sales of the Company’s capital stock, including convertible preferred stock, the effect of the rights and preferences of the preferred shareholders, and the prospects of a liquidity event, among others.
Stock-based compensation is measured at the grant-date fair value of the award and is then recognized as the related services are rendered, typically over the vesting period. The Company estimates forfeitures that will occur in their determination of the expense recorded. The measurement date for employee awards is the date of grant, and stock-based compensation costs are recognized as expense over the employees' requisite service period, which is the vesting period, on a straight-line basis. Prior to the adoption of Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2018-07, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU No. 2018-07”), as discussed below under “Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance,” the measurement date for non-employee awards was generally the date the services were completed, resulting in financial reporting period adjustments to stock-based compensation during the vesting terms for changes in the fair value of the awards. After the adoption of ASU No. 2018-07, the measurement date for non-employee awards is the later of the adoption date of ASU No. 2018-07 or the date of grant, without changes in the fair value of the award. Stock-based compensation costs for non-employees are recognized as expense over the vesting period on a straight-line basis.
The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements and tax returns. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based upon the differences between the consolidated financial statements carrying amounts and the tax bases of existing assets and liabilities and for loss and credit carryforwards, using enacted tax rates expected to be in effect in the years in which the differences are expected to reverse. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that these assets may not be realized.
The Company provides reserves for potential payments of taxes to various tax authorities related to uncertain tax positions. Amounts recognized are based on a determination of whether a tax benefit taken by the Company in its tax filings or positions is “more likely than not” to be sustained on audit. The amount recognized is equal to the largest amount that is more than 50% likely to be sustained. Interest and penalties associated with uncertain tax positions are recorded as a component of income tax expense. As of December 31, 2020, and 2019, the Company has not identified any uncertain tax positions for which reserves would be required.
The Company’s comprehensive loss consists of its net loss and unrealized gain and loss from investments in debt securities.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07 which substantially aligns the measurement and classification guidance for share-based payments to nonemployees with the guidance for share-based payments to employees. The ASU also clarifies that any share-based payment issued to a customer should be evaluated by the new revenue recognition standard. The new ASU requires a modified retrospective transition approach. The Company has adopted the ASU as of January 1, 2020, which did not have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Recent Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740)—Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which simplifies the accounting for income taxes by eliminating some exceptions to the general approach in Accounting Standards Codification 740, Income Taxes. It also clarifies certain aspects of the existing guidance to promote more consistent application. This standard is effective for calendar-year public business entities in 2021 and interim periods within that year, and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact the new standard will have on the consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment (“ASU 2017-04”), which eliminates the performance of Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. In performing its annual or interim impairment testing, an entity will instead compare the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount and recognize any impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. Additionally, an entity should consider income tax effects from any tax-deductible goodwill on the carrying amount of the reporting unit when measuring the goodwill impairment loss. As a smaller reporting company pursuant to Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, these changes become effective for the Company on January 1, 2023. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact of these changes on the consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses. This ASU added a new impairment model (known as the current expected credit loss (“CECL”) model) that is based on expected losses rather than incurred losses. Under the new guidance, an entity recognizes as an allowance its estimate of expected credit losses. The CECL model applies to most debt instruments, trade receivables, lease receivables, financial guarantee contracts, and other loan commitments. The CECL model does not have a minimum threshold for recognition of impairment losses and entities will need to measure expected credit losses on assets
that have a low risk of loss. As a smaller reporting company pursuant to Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, these changes become effective for the Company on January 1, 2023. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact of these changes on the consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef