SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2021
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”) and pursuant to the regulations of the U.S Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with US GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC. The condensed consolidated financial statements include the Company’s accounts and those of its subsidiaries. In the opinion of the Company’s management, the financial information for the interim periods presented reflects all adjustments, which are of a normal and recurring nature, necessary for a fair presentation of the Company’s financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. The results reported in these condensed consolidated financial statements are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for the entire year.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of a disease caused by a novel strain of the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) to be a pandemic. As of September 30, 2021, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic continues to unfold and there has been uncertainty and disruption in the global economy and financial markets. The Company has considered the COVID-19 pandemic related impacts on its estimates, as appropriate, within its consolidated financial statements and there may be changes to those estimates in future periods.
The COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the response to mitigate the spread and effects of COVID-19, has impacted the Company and its customers, as well as the demand for its products and services. The impact of COVID-19 on the Company’s operational results in subsequent periods will largely depend on future developments, and cannot be accurately predicted. These developments may include, but are not limited to, new information concerning the severity of COVID-19, the degree of success of actions taken to contain or treat COVID-19 and the reactions by consumers, companies, governmental entities, and capital markets to such actions.
Significant Accounting Policies
The Company’s significant accounting policies are described in Note 2 to the financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended December 31, 2020. See the below discussion of changes to the Company’s policies for foreign currency translation, products revenue and services revenue, warranty reserve, intangible assets, asset
acquisitions, and contingent consideration, due to 2021 business combinations and asset acquisitions. There have been no other changes to the Company’s significant accounting policies during the first nine months of fiscal year 2021.
Foreign Currency Translation
The Company translates assets and liabilities of its foreign subsidiaries from their respective functional currencies to U.S. Dollars at the appropriate spot rates as of the balance sheet date. The functional currency of all wholly owned subsidiaries is U.S. Dollars, except for EnvisionTEC GmbH and Aerosint, for which it is Euros. The functional currency of the Company's operations outside the United States is generally the local currency of the country where the operations are located or U.S. Dollars. The results of operations are translated into U.S. Dollars at a monthly average rate, calculated using daily exchange rates.
Differences arising from the translation of opening balance sheets of these entities to the rate at the end of the fiscal period are recognized in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income. The differences arising from the translation of foreign results at the average rate are also recognized in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income. Such translation differences are recognized as income or expense in the period in which the Company disposes of the operations.
Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the rate of exchange at the transaction date. Assets and liabilities resulting from these transactions are translated at the rate of exchange in effect at the balance sheet date. All such differences are recorded in Interest and other income, net in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Products Revenue and Services Revenue
Products revenue include sales of the Company’s additive manufacturing systems, along with the sale of related accessories and consumables, as well as parts produced by the Company’s direct manufacturing solutions. Consumables are primarily comprised of materials, which are used by the 3D printers during the printing process to produce parts, as well as replacement parts for items consumed during system operations. Certain on-device software is embedded with the hardware and sold with the product bundle and is included within product revenue. Revenue from products is recognized upon transfer of control, which is generally at the point of shipment.
Services revenue consists of installation, training, and post-installation hardware and software support, various software solutions the Company offers to facilitate the operation of the Company’s products, and research and development services. The Company offers multiple software products, which are licensed through either a cloud-based solution and/or local software, depending on the product. For the cloud-based solution, which the customer does not have the right to take possession of, the Company provides an annual subscription for customer access which is renewable at expiration. The revenue from the cloud-based solution is recognized ratably over the annual term as the Company considers the services provided under the cloud-based solution to be a series of distinct performance obligations, as the Company provides continuous daily access to the cloud solution. For local software subscriptions, the Company recognizes revenue once the customer has been given access to the software.
Revenue under research and development service contracts is generally recognized over time where progress is measured in a manner that reflects the transfer of control of the promised goods or services to the customer. Depending on the facts and circumstances surrounding each research and development service contract, revenue is recognized over time using either an input measure (based on the entity’s direct costs incurred in an effort to satisfy the performance obligations) or an output measure (specifically units or parts delivered, based upon certain customer acceptance and delivery requirements).
For certain products, the Company offers customers an optional extended warranty beyond the initial warranty period. The optional extended warranty is accounted for as a service-type warranty. Extended warranty revenue is deferred and recognized on a straight-line basis over the service-type warranty period of the contract and the associated costs are recognized as incurred.
Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration expected to be received in exchange for transferring goods or providing services. The amount of consideration is typically a fixed price at the contract inception. Consideration from shipping and handling is recorded on a gross basis within product revenue.
The Company determines revenue recognition through the following steps:
Nature of Products and Services
The Company sells its products primarily through authorized resellers, independent sales agents, and its own sales force. Revenue from hardware, consumables, and produced parts is recognized upon transfer of control, which is generally at the point of shipment.
The Company’s post-installation support is primarily sold through one-year annual contracts and such revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the agreement. Service revenue from installation and training is recognized as performed.
The Company’s terms of sale generally provide payment terms that are customary in the countries where the Company transacts business. To reduce credit risk in connection with certain sales, the Company may, depending upon the circumstances, require significant deposits or payment in full prior to shipment.
Due to the short-term nature of the Company’s contracts, substantially all of the outstanding performance obligations are recognized within one year.
Shipping and handling activities that occur after control over a product has transferred to a customer are accounted for as fulfillment activities rather than performance obligations, as allowed under a practical expedient provided by ASC 606. The shipping and handling fees charged to customers are recognized as revenue and the related costs are included in cost of revenue at the point in time when ownership of the product is transferred to the customer. Sales taxes and value added taxes collected concurrently with revenue generating activities are excluded from revenue.
The Company enters into contracts with customers that can include various combinations of hardware products, software licenses, and services, which are distinct and accounted for as separate performance obligations. Products or services that are promised to a customer can be considered distinct if both of the following criteria are met: (i) the customer can benefit from the products or services either on its own or together with other readily available resources and (ii) the Company’s promise to transfer the products, software, or services to the customer is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract. Determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately versus together may require significant judgement.
Judgement is required to determine the standalone selling price (“SSP”). The transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation on a relative standalone selling price basis and revenue is recognized for each performance obligation when control has passed. In most cases, the Company is able to establish SSP based on historical transaction data of the observable prices of hardware products and consumables sold separately in comparable circumstances to similar customers, observable renewal rates for software and post-installation support, and the Company’s best estimate of the selling price at which the Company would have sold the product regularly on a stand-alone basis for training and installation. The Company reassesses the SSP on a periodic basis or when facts and circumstances change.
The Company recognizes grants or subsidies from governments and other organizations when there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with any conditions attached to the grant arrangement and the grant will be received. The Company evaluates the conditions of the grant as of each reporting period to ensure that the Company has reached reasonable assurance of
meeting the conditions of each grant arrangement and that it is expected that the grant will be received as a result of meeting the necessary conditions. Grants are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations on a systematic basis over the periods in which the Company recognized the related costs for which the grant is intended to compensate. Specifically, when government grants are related to reimbursements for cost operating expenses, the grants are recognized as a reduction of the related expense in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company records grant receivables in the consolidated balance sheets in prepaid expenses and other current assets or other non-current assets, depending on when the amounts are expected to be received from the government agency. Proceeds received from grants prior to expenditures being incurred are recorded as restricted cash as well as other current liabilities or other long-term liabilities, depending on when the Company expects to use the proceeds.
The Company classifies in the consolidated statements of cash flows grant proceeds received in advance of spending for qualified expenditures as a cash flow from financing activities, as the proceeds are used to assist in funding future expenditures. Grant proceeds received as reimbursements for operating expenditures previously incurred are classified in cash flows from operating activities.
Substantially all of the Company’s hardware and software products are covered by a standard assurance warranty of one year within the United States and 13 months internationally, and estimated warranty obligations are recorded as an expense at the time of revenue recognition. In the event of a failure of hardware product or software covered by this warranty, the Company will repair or replace the software or hardware product. For certain products, the Company offers customers an optional extended warranty after the initial warranty period. The optional extended warranty is accounted for as a service-type warranty; therefore, costs are recognized as incurred and revenue is recognized over the service-type warranty period.
The Company’s warranty reserve reflects estimated material and labor costs for potential or actual product issues in its installed base for which the Company expects to incur an obligation. The Company periodically assesses the adequacy of the warranty reserve and adjusts the amount as necessary. If the data used to calculate the adequacy of the warranty reserve is not indicative of future requirements, additional or reduced warranty reserves may be required.
Substantially all of the Company’s produced parts are covered by standard warranties ofto five years, depending on the product. In the event a product does not meet the requested specifications or has a defect in materials or workmanship, the Company will remake or adjust the product at no additional cost within the specified warranty period. The Company’s produced parts warranty reserve is accounted for based on historical cost of rework.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is stated at cost. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred. When assets are retired or disposed of, the assets and related accumulated depreciation are eliminated from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss is included in the determination of net income or loss.
Depreciation is expensed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:
Intangible assets consist of identifiable intangible assets, including developed technology, trade names, and customer relationships, resulting from the Company’s acquisitions. The Company evaluates definite-lived intangible assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. If indicators of impairment are present, the Company then compares the estimated undiscounted cash flows that the specific asset is expected to generate to its carrying value. If such assets are impaired, the impairment recognized is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its fair value. To date, there have been no impairments of intangible assets. Intangible assets are amortized over their useful life.
Acquisitions of assets or a group of assets that do not meet the definition of a business are accounted for as asset acquisitions using the cost accumulation method, whereby the cost of the acquisition, including certain transaction costs, is allocated to the assets acquired on the basis of relative fair values. No goodwill is recognized in an asset acquisition. Intangible assets that are acquired in an asset acquisition for use in research and development activities which have an alternative future use are capitalized as in-process research and development (“IPR&D”). Acquired IPR&D which has no alternative future use is recorded as research and development expense at acquisition.
Contingent consideration represents potential future payments that the Company may be required to pay in the event negotiated milestones are met in connection with a business acquisition. Contingent consideration is recorded as a liability at the date of acquisition at fair value. The fair value of contingent consideration related to revenue metrics is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation in a risk-neutral framework. Under this approach, the value of contingent consideration related to revenue metrics is calculated as the average present value of contingent consideration payments over all simulated paths. The fair value of contingent consideration related to technical developments is estimated using a scenario-based approach, which is a special case of the income approach that uses several possible future scenarios. Under this approach, the value of the technical milestone payment is calculated as the probability-weighted payment across all scenarios. Significant increases or decreases in any of the probabilities of success or changes in expected timelines for achievement of any of the revenue or technical milestones could result in a significantly higher or lower fair value of the contingent consideration liability. The fair value of the contingent consideration at each reporting date is updated by reflecting the changes in fair value reflected within research and development expenses in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740)—Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which simplifies the accounting for income taxes by eliminating some exceptions to the general approach in Accounting Standards Codification 740, Income Taxes. It also clarifies certain aspects of the existing guidance to promote more consistent application. This standard is effective for calendar-year public business entities in 2021 and interim periods within that year, and early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted the ASU as of January 1, 2021, which did not have a material effect on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
Recent Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment (“ASU 2017-04”), which eliminates the performance of Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. In performing its annual or interim impairment testing, an entity will instead compare the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount and recognize any impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. Additionally, an entity should consider income tax effects from any tax-deductible goodwill on the carrying amount of the reporting unit when measuring the goodwill impairment loss. As a smaller reporting company pursuant to Rule 12b-2 of the Securities
Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, these changes become effective for the Company on January 1, 2022. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact of these changes on the condensed consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses. This ASU added a new impairment model (known as the current expected credit loss (“CECL”) model) that is based on expected losses rather than incurred losses. Under the new guidance, an entity recognizes as an allowance its estimate of expected credit losses. The CECL model applies to most debt instruments, trade receivables, lease receivables, financial guarantee contracts, and other loan commitments. The CECL model does not have a minimum threshold for recognition of impairment losses and entities will need to measure expected credit losses on assets that have a low risk of loss. As a smaller reporting company pursuant to Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, these changes become effective for the Company on January 1, 2022. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact of these changes on the condensed consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef