Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)


12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022


Basis of Presentation

The consolidated financial statements of the Company are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”) and pursuant to the regulations of the U.S Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).

Principles of Consolidation

The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. The functional currency of all wholly owned subsidiaries is U.S. Dollars. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.

COVID-19 Pandemic

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of a disease caused by a novel strain of the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) to be a pandemic. As of December 31, 2022, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic continues to unfold and there has been uncertainty and disruption in the global economy and financial markets. The Company has considered the COVID-19 pandemic related impacts on its estimates, as appropriate, within its consolidated financial statements and there may be changes to those estimates in future periods.

The COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the response to mitigate the spread and effects of COVID-19, may impact the Company and its customers, as well as the demand for its products and services. The impact of COVID-19 on the Company’s operational results in subsequent periods will largely depend on future developments, and cannot be accurately predicted. These developments may include, but are not limited to, new information concerning the severity of COVID-19, the degree of success of actions take to contain or treat COVID-19, the severity and impact of new variants of COVID-19, and the reactions by consumers, companies, governmental entities, and capital markets to such actions.

Foreign Currency Translation

The Company translates assets and liabilities of its foreign subsidiaries from their respective functional currencies to U.S. Dollars at the appropriate spot rates as of the balance sheet date. The functional currency of most wholly owned subsidiaries is U.S. Dollars, except for certain international subsidiaries, for which it is Euros, British Pound Sterling, or Japanese Yen, depending on the subsidiary’s location. The results of operations are translated into U.S. Dollars at a monthly average rate, calculated using daily exchange rates.

Differences arising from the translation of opening balance sheets of these entities to the rate at the end of the fiscal period are recognized in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income. The differences arising from the translation of foreign results at the average rate are also recognized in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income. Such translation differences are recognized as income or expense in the period in which the Company disposes of the operations.

Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the approximate rate of exchange at the transaction date. Assets and liabilities resulting from these transactions are translated at the rate of exchange in effect at the balance sheet date. All such differences are recorded in interest and other (expense) income, net in the consolidated statements of operations.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the Company’s management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions regarding uncertainties that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates and assumptions reflected in these consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, revenue recognition, realizability of inventory, goodwill, intangibles, stock-based compensation, and fair values of common stock. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and various other factors believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities. The Company assesses estimates on an ongoing basis; however, actual results could materially differ from those estimates.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents consist of standard checking accounts, money market accounts and certain investments. The Company classifies any marketable security with an original maturity date of 90 days or less at the time of purchase as a cash equivalent. 

Short-Term Investments

The Company invests its excess cash in fixed income instruments denominated and payable in U.S. dollars including U.S. treasury securities, commercial paper, corporate bonds, government bonds, and asset-backed securities in accordance with the Company’s investment policy that primarily seeks to maintain adequate liquidity and preserve capital. Short-term investments represent holdings of available-for-sale marketable securities in accordance with the Company’s investment policy and cash management strategy. Investments in marketable securities are recorded at fair value, with any unrealized gains and losses reported within accumulated other comprehensive income as a separate component of stockholders’ equity until realized or until a determination is made that an other-than-temporary decline in market value has occurred. When such reductions occur, the cost of the investment is adjusted to fair value through recording a loss on investments in the consolidated statements of operations. All investments in marketable securities mature within one year.

The Company also invests in equity securities which are carried at fair value based upon quoted prices in active markets. The Company’s recognizes unrealized gains (losses) on equity securities in interest and other (expense) income, net in the consolidated statements of operations.

Restricted Cash

Restricted cash represents cash and cash equivalents that are restricted to withdrawal or use as of the reporting date. Restricted cash typically relates to deposits to secure letters of credit, cash the Company is contractually obligated to maintain related to acquisitions, as well as contractually required security deposits.

Financial Instruments

The Company’s financial instruments are comprised of cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, restricted cash, accounts receivable and accounts payable. The Company’s other current financial assets and current financial liabilities have fair values that approximate their carrying values due to the short maturity of these balances.  

Products Revenue and Services Revenue

Products revenue include sales of the Company’s additive manufacturing systems, along with the sale of related accessories and consumables, as well as produced parts. Consumables are primarily comprised of materials, which are used by the 3D printers during the printing process to produce parts, as well as replacement parts for items consumed during system operations. Certain on-device software is embedded with the hardware and sold with the product bundle and is included within product revenue. Revenue from

products is recognized upon transfer of control, which is generally at the point of shipment. If the Company cannot objectively determine that the product provided to the customer is in accordance with agreed-upon specifications, revenue is not recognized until customer acceptance is received.

Services revenue consists of installation, training, and post-installation hardware and software support, as well as various software solutions the Company offers to facilitate the operation of the Company’s products. The Company offers multiple software products, which are licensed through either a cloud-based solution and/or on-device software, depending on the product. For the cloud-based solution, which the customer does not have the right to take possession of, the Company typically provides an annual subscription for customer access which is renewable at expiration. The revenue from the cloud-based solution is recognized ratably over the annual term as the Company considers the services provided under the cloud-based solution to be a series of distinct performance obligations, as the Company provides continuous daily access to the cloud solution. For on-device software subscriptions, the Company typically recognizes revenue once the customer has been given access to the software. When the Company enters into development contracts, control of the development service is transferred over time, and the related revenue is recognized as services are performed.

For certain products, the Company offers customers an optional extended warranty beyond the initial warranty period. The optional extended warranty is accounted for as a service-type warranty. Extended warranty revenue is deferred and recognized on a straight-line basis over the service-type warranty period of the contract and the associated costs are recognized as incurred. For certain deferred maintenance contracts where sufficient historical evidence indicates that the costs of performing the related services under the contract are not incurred on a straight-line basis, the associated revenue is recognized at a point in time in proportion to the costs expected to be incurred.

The Company generates certain revenues through the sale of research and development services. Revenue under research and development service contracts is generally recognized over time where progress is measured in a manner that reflects the transfer of control of the promised goods or services to the customer. Depending on the facts and circumstances surrounding each research and development service contract, revenue is recognized over time using either an input measure (based on the entity’s direct costs incurred in an effort to satisfy the performance obligations) or an output measure (specifically units or parts delivered, based upon certain customer acceptance and delivery requirements).

In certain circumstances, the Company generates revenue through leases of machinery and equipment to customers. These leases are classified as either operating or sales-type leases and generally have lease terms ranging from one to five years.

Revenue Recognition

Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration expected to be received in exchange for transferring goods or providing services. The amount of consideration is typically a fixed price at the contract inception. Consideration from shipping and handling is recorded on a gross basis within product revenue.

The Company determines revenue recognition through the following steps:

Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer

Identification of the performance obligations in the contract

Determination of the transaction price

Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract

Recognition of revenue when, or as, the Company satisfies a performance obligation

Nature of Products and Services

The Company sells its products through authorized resellers, independent sales agents, and its own sales force. Revenue from hardware, consumables, and produced parts is recognized upon transfer of control, which is generally at the point of shipment. If the Company cannot objectively determine that the products provided to the customer are in accordance with agreed-upon specifications, revenue is not recognized until customer acceptance is received.

The Company’s post-installation support is primarily sold through one-year annual contracts and such revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the agreement. For certain maintenance contracts, there is a detail of specified maintenance which is performed at predetermined intervals and is recognized when the professional services are performed. Service revenue from installation and training is recognized as performed.

The Company’s terms of sale generally provide payment terms that are customary in the countries where the Company transacts business. To reduce credit risk in connection with certain sales, the Company may, depending upon the circumstances, require significant deposits or payment in full prior to shipment. When the Company has a noncancelable contract and the right to invoice prior to shipment based on payment terms, the Company records the receivable and related customer deposits in the consolidated balance sheets.

Due to the short-term nature of the Company’s contracts, substantially all of the outstanding performance obligations are recognized within one year.

Shipping and handling activities that occur after control over a product has transferred to a customer are accounted for as fulfillment activities rather than performance obligations, as allowed under a practical expedient provided by ASC 606. The shipping and handling fees charged to customers are recognized as revenue and the related costs are included in cost of revenue at the point in time when ownership of the product is transferred to the customer. Sales taxes and value added taxes collected concurrently with revenue generating activities are excluded from revenue.

Significant Judgements

The Company enters into contracts with customers that can include various combinations of hardware products, software licenses, and services, which are distinct and accounted for as separate performance obligations. Products or services that are promised to a customer can be considered distinct if both of the following criteria are met: (i) the customer can benefit from the products or services either on its own or together with other readily available resources and (ii) the Company’s promise to transfer the products, software, or services to the customer is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract. Determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately versus together may require significant judgement.

Judgement is required to determine the standalone selling price (“SSP”). The transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation on a relative standalone selling price basis and revenue is recognized for each performance obligation when control has passed. In most cases, the Company is able to establish SSP based on historical transaction data of the observable prices of hardware products and consumables sold separately in comparable circumstances to similar customers, observable renewal rates for software and post-installation support, and the Company’s best estimate of the selling price at which the Company would have sold the product regularly on a stand-alone basis for training and installation. The Company reassesses the SSP on a periodic basis or when facts and circumstances change.

Contract Balances

The timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections results in billed accounts receivable, customer deposits and deferred revenues (contract liabilities) on the consolidated balance sheets. Timing of revenue recognition may differ from the timing of invoicing to customers. The Company records a receivable at the time of invoicing. For most contracts, customers are invoiced a substantive portion of the arrangement prior to shipment of products or performance of services. The Company will typically bill in advance for post-installation support and cloud-based software licenses, resulting in deferred revenue.

When products have been delivered, but the product revenue associated with the arrangement has been deferred the Company includes the costs for the delivered items in inventory on the consolidated balance sheets until recognition of the related revenue occurs, at which time it is recognized in cost of sales.

The Company’s contracts are primarily one year or less, and as such, most of the deferred revenue outstanding at the end of the fiscal year is recognized during the following year. Purchases of post-installation customer support and maintenance may range from one to five years, and as such, revenue for these transactions are recognized over periods greater than one year.

The Company sells products directly to end-users as well as through a reseller network. Under the reseller arrangement, the reseller is determined to be the Company’s customer, and revenue is recognized based on the amounts the Company is entitled to, reduced by any payments owed to the resellers. On certain contracts, the Company utilizes external partners and an internal sales team to sell direct to the end user. The Company acts as a principal in the contracts with users when utilizing external partners because the Company controls the product, establishes the price, and bears the risk of nonperformance, until it is transferred to the end user. The Company records the revenue on a gross basis and commissions are recorded as a sales and marketing expense in the statement of operations. The Company recognizes its commission expense as a point-in-time expense as contract obligations are primarily completed within a one-year contract period.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

In evaluating the collectability of accounts receivable, the Company assesses a number of factors, including specific customers’ abilities to meet their financial obligations, the length of time receivables are past due, and historical collection experience. If circumstances related to specific customers change, or economic conditions deteriorate such that past collection experience is no longer relevant, the Company’s estimate of the recoverability of accounts receivable could be further reduced from the levels provided for in the consolidated financial statements.

The Company evaluates specific accounts for which it is believed a customer may have an inability to meet their financial obligations. In these cases, judgment is applied, based on available facts and circumstances, and a specific reserve is recorded for that customer to reduce the receivable to an amount expected to be collected. These specific reserves are reevaluated and adjusted as additional information is received that impacts the amount reserved.

Remaining Performance Obligations

Remaining performance obligations are the aggregate amount of total contract transaction price that is unsatisfied or partially unsatisfied. The Company has elected to apply the practical expedient associated with incremental costs of obtaining a contract, and as such, sales commission expense is generally expensed when incurred because the amortization period would be one year or less. These costs are recorded within sales and marketing expense in the consolidated statements of operations.

Net Loss Per Share

The Company presents basic and diluted loss per share amounts. Basic loss per share is calculated by dividing net loss available to holders of Common Stock by the weighted average number of shares of Common Stock outstanding during the applicable period.

The denominator for diluted earnings per share is a computation of the weighted-average number of ordinary shares and the potential dilutive ordinary shares outstanding during the period. Potential dilutive shares outstanding include the dilutive effect of in-the-money options, unvested Restricted Stock Awards (“RSAs”), and unvested Restricted Stock Units (“RSUs”) using the treasury stock method. In periods in which the Company reports a net loss, diluted net loss per share is the same as basic net loss per share because dilutive shares are not assumed to have been issued if their effect is anti-dilutive.


The Company recognizes grants or subsidies from governments and other organizations when there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with any conditions attached to the grant arrangement and the grant will be received. The Company evaluates the conditions of the grant as of each reporting period to ensure that the Company has reached reasonable assurance of meeting the conditions of each grant arrangement and that it is expected that the grant will be received as a result of meeting the necessary conditions. Grants are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations on a systematic basis over the periods in which the Company recognized the related costs for which the grant is intended to compensate. Specifically, when government grants are related to reimbursements for operating expenses, the grants are recognized as a reduction of the related expense in the consolidated statements of operations. During the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company recognized $0.4 million and $1.0 million, respectively, related to grants in the research and development line within the consolidated statements of operations. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company did not recognize any research and development grants.

The Company records grant receivables in the consolidated balance sheets in prepaid expenses and other current assets or other non-current assets, depending on when the amounts are expected to be received from the government agency. Proceeds received from grants prior to expenditures being incurred are recorded as restricted cash and other current liabilities or other long-term liabilities, depending on when the Company expects to use the proceeds.

Warranty Reserve

Substantially all of the Company’s hardware and software products are covered by a standard assurance warranty of one year within the United States and 13 months internationally, and estimated warranty obligations are recorded as an expense at the time of revenue recognition. In the event of a failure of hardware product or software covered by this warranty, the Company will repair or replace the software or hardware product. For certain products, the Company offers customers an optional extended warranty after the initial warranty period. The optional extended warranty is accounted for as a service-type warranty; therefore, costs are recognized as incurred and revenue is recognized over the service-type warranty period.

The Company’s warranty reserve reflects estimated material and labor costs for potential or actual product issues in its installed base for which the Company expects to incur an obligation. The Company periodically assesses the adequacy of the warranty reserve and adjusts the amount as necessary. If the data used to calculate the adequacy of the warranty reserve is not indicative of future requirements, additional or reduced warranty reserves may be required.

Substantially all of the Company’s produced parts are covered by standard warranties of one to five years, depending on the product. In the event a product does not meet the requested specifications or has a defect in materials or workmanship, the Company will remake or adjust the product at no additional cost within the specified warranty period. The Company’s produced parts warranty reserve is accounted for based on historical cost of rework.


Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, approximating a first-in, first-out basis.

The Company provides for inventory losses based on obsolescence and levels in excess of forecasted demand. Inventory is reduced to the estimated net realizable value based on historical usage and expected demand. Inventory provisions based on obsolescence and inventory in excess of forecasted demand are recorded through cost of sales in the consolidated statements of operations.

Concentrations of Credit Risk and Off-Balance-Sheet Risk

In the normal course of operations, ExOne GmbH issues short-term financial guarantees and letters of credit to third parties in connection with certain commercial transactions requiring security through a credit facility with a German bank. At December 31, 2022, total outstanding financial guarantees and letters of credit issued were $3.9 million.

The Company has no other significant off-balance-sheet risk, such as foreign exchange contracts, option contracts, or other foreign hedging arrangements. Financial instruments that potentially expose the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist mainly of cash and cash equivalents. The Company maintains its cash and cash equivalents principally with accredited financial institutions of high-credit standing.

As of December 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020, no single customer accounted for more than 10% of revenue. As of December 31, 2022, no single customer accounted for more than 10% of total accounts receivable. As of December 31, 2021, one customer accounted for 24% of total accounts receivable.

Customer Deposits

Payments received from customers who have placed reservations or purchase orders in advance of shipment are refundable upon cancellation or non-delivery by the Company and are included within customer deposits on the consolidated balance sheets.

Other Investments

The Company periodically makes investments in companies within the additive manufacturing industry. The Company monitors events or changes in circumstances that may have a significant effect on the fair value of investments, either due to impairment or based on observable price changes, and records necessary adjustments in interest and other (expense) income, net in the consolidated statements of operations.

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment is stated at cost. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred. When assets are retired or disposed of, the assets and related accumulated depreciation are eliminated from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss is included in the determination of net income or loss.

Depreciation is expensed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:

Asset Classification


Useful Life





20 years




50 years




7 years

Furniture and fixtures




10 years

Computer equipment




7 years



3 years





5 years

Leasehold improvements


Shorter of asset’s useful life or remaining life of the lease


For lease arrangements in which the Company is the lessee, the Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. The Company typically only includes an initial lease term in its assessment of a lease arrangement. Options to renew a lease are not included in the Company’s assessment unless there is reasonable certainty that the Company will renew. The Company assesses it plans to renew its material leases on an annual basis. Operating leases are included in other assets, current portion of lease liability, and lease liability, net of current portion on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets.

Right of use (“ROU”) assets and lease liabilities are recognized based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the expected remaining lease term. As the interest rate implicit in the Company’s leases is typically not readily determinable, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate for a similar term of lease payments based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of future payments.

The Company elected the short-term lease recognition practical expedient and therefore, the Company does not recognize right of use assets or lease liabilities for leases with less than a twelve-month duration. The Company also elected the practical expedient to account for lease agreements which contain both lease and non-lease components as a single lease component.

For lease arrangements in which the Company is the lessor, the Company determines whether the lease arrangement is classified as an operating lease or sales-type lease at inception. The Company’s operating lease arrangements have initial terms generally ranging from one to five years, certain of which may contain extension or termination clauses, or both. Such operating lease arrangements also generally include a purchase option to acquire the related machinery and equipment at the end of the lease term for either a fixed amount as determined at inception, or a subsequently negotiated fair market value.

The Company’s sales-type lease arrangements generally include transfer of ownership at the end of the lease term, and as such, the Company’s net investment in sales-type lease arrangements presented in the consolidated balance sheets generally does not include an amount of unguaranteed residual value.

For certain of the arrangements, the Company separates and allocates certain non-lease components (principally maintenance services) from non-lease components. Sales, value add, and other taxes collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities are accounted for on a net (excluded from lease income) basis. In determination of the lease term, the Company considers the likelihood of lease renewal options and lease termination provisions.

Business Combinations

The Company allocates the purchase price of acquired companies to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values. The Company generally values the identifiable intangible assets acquired using a discounted cash flow model. The significant estimates used in valuing certain of the intangible assets, include, but are not limited to future expected cash flows of the asset, discount rates to determine the present value of the future cash flows and expected technology life cycles. Intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful life; the period over which the Company anticipates generating economic benefit from the asset. Fair value adjustments subsequent to the acquisition date, that are not measurement period adjustments, are recognized in earnings.


Goodwill represents the future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired in a business combination that is not individually identified and separately recorded. The excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair value of net assets of businesses acquired in a business combination is recognized as goodwill. Goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment at least annually (as of the first day of the fourth quarter) or as circumstances indicate the value may no longer be recoverable. To assess if goodwill is impaired, the Company performs a qualitative assessment to determine whether further impairment testing is necessary. The Company then compares the carrying amount of the single reporting unit to the fair value of the reporting unit. An excess carrying value over fair value would indicate that goodwill may be impaired. Due to sustained declines in the Company’s stock price and the stock prices of comparable companies, we performed interim quantitative assessments as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2022, utilizing a combination of the income and market approaches. The results of the quantitative analysis performed indicated that the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeded the fair value. As such, $498.8 million of goodwill impairment charges was recorded during the year ended December 31, 2022.

Intangible Assets

Intangible assets consist of identifiable intangible assets, including developed technology, trade names, and customer relationships, resulting from the Company’s acquisitions. The Company evaluates definite-lived intangible assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. If indicators of impairment are present, the Company then compares the estimated undiscounted cash flows that the specific asset is expected to generate to its carrying value. If such assets are impaired, the impairment recognized is measured as the amount by which the carrying

amount of the asset exceeds its fair value. To date, there have been no impairments of intangible assets. Intangible assets are amortized over their useful life.

Asset Acquisitions

Acquisitions of assets or a group of assets that do not meet the definition of a business are accounted for as asset acquisitions using the cost accumulation method, whereby the cost of the acquisition, including certain transaction costs, is allocated to the assets acquired on the basis of relative fair values. No goodwill is recognized in an asset acquisition. Intangible assets that are acquired in an asset acquisition for use in research and development activities which have an alternative future use are capitalized as in-process research and development (“IPR&D”). Acquired IPR&D which has no alternative future use is recorded as in-process research and development expense at acquisition.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

The Company evaluates whether events or circumstances have occurred that indicate that the estimated remaining useful life of its long-lived assets may warrant revision or that the carrying value of these assets may be impaired. The Company does not believe that any events have occurred through December 31, 2022, that would indicate its long-lived assets are impaired.

Contingent Consideration

Contingent consideration represents potential future payments that the Company may be required to pay in the event negotiated milestones are met in connection with a business acquisition. Contingent consideration is recorded as a liability at the date of acquisition at fair value. The fair value of contingent consideration related to revenue metrics is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation in a risk-neutral framework. Under this approach, the value of contingent consideration related to revenue metrics is calculated as the average present value of contingent consideration payments over all simulated paths. The fair value of contingent consideration related to technical developments is estimated using a scenario-based approach, which is a special case of the income approach that uses several possible future scenarios. Under this approach, the value of the technical milestone payment is calculated as the probability-weighted payment across all scenarios. Significant increases or decreases in any of the probabilities of success or changes in expected timelines for achievement of any of the revenue or technical milestones could result in a significantly higher or lower fair value of the contingent consideration liability. The fair value of the contingent consideration at each reporting date is updated by reflecting the changes in fair value reflected within research and development expenses in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.

Research and Development

Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Research and development expense includes costs, primarily related to salaries and benefits for employees, prototypes and design expenses, incurred to develop intellectual property and is charged to expense as incurred.

Capitalized Software

Costs incurred internally in researching and developing a software product to be sold to customers are charged to expense until technological feasibility has been established for the product. Once technological feasibility is established, costs incurred during the application development phase are capitalized only when the Company believes it is probable the development will result in new or additional functionality, and such software costs are capitalized until the product is available for general release to customers. Judgment is required in determining when technological feasibility of a product is established. The Company has determined that technological feasibility for software products is reached after all high-risk development issues have been resolved through coding and testing. Generally, this occurs shortly before the products are released, such that there are no material costs to capitalize. The Company capitalizes certain costs related to the development of software within Intangible assets in the consolidated balance sheets and amortizes the costs on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the asset, which is typically 3 years.

The Company also capitalizes certain costs related to the implementation of cloud computing software within prepaid and other current assets and other noncurrent assets in the consolidated balance sheets. The types of costs capitalized during the application development phase include employee compensation, as well as consulting fees for third-party developers working on these projects. If a renewal option is included in the contract, the Company estimates the contractual term based on the renewal period. The capitalized costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the asset, including any estimated renewal period.

Stock-Based Compensation

The Company’s stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as an expense over the requisite service period.

The Company accounts for all stock options granted to employees and nonemployees using a fair value method. The fair value of options on the date of grant is calculated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model based on key assumptions such as stock price, expected volatility and expected term. The Company’s estimates of these assumptions are primarily based on the fair value of the Company’s stock, historical data, peer company data and judgment regarding future trends and factors.

For awards with service conditions only, the Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period. For awards with service and performance-based conditions, the Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense using the graded vesting method over the requisite service period. Estimates of stock-based compensation expense for an award with performance conditions are based on the probable outcome of the performance conditions and the cumulative effect of any changes in the probability outcomes are recorded in the period in which the changes occur. For awards with service and market-based conditions, the Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense on a straight-line based over the requisite service period for each tranche. Stock-based compensation expense for awards with a market condition is calculated using a Monte Carlo valuation approach.

The Company estimates forfeitures that will occur based on a historical forfeiture rate in their determination of the expense recorded.

Restructuring Charges

The Company incurs restructuring charges in connection with workforce reductions, facility closures or consolidations, inventory write-offs and other actions. Such costs include employee severance, benefits and related costs, termination of contractual obligations, non-cash asset charges, and other direct incremental costs.

The Company records employee termination liabilities at the time the relevant employees are notified, unless the employees will be retained to render service beyond a minimum retention period for transition purposes, in which case the liability is recognized ratably over the future service period. Other costs associated with a restructuring plan, such as consulting or professional fees, facility exit costs, accelerated depreciation or asset impairments associated with a restructuring plan, are recognized in the period in which the liability is incurred or the asset is impaired.

Income Taxes

The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method; under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting bases of assets and liabilities and are measured using enacted tax rates and laws that are expected to be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. Realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon future earnings, the timing and amount of which are uncertain.

The Company utilizes a two-step approach to recognize and measure uncertain tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon tax authority examination, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is

to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. The Company also recognizes accrued interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in the provision for income taxes.

Comprehensive Loss

The Company’s comprehensive loss consists of its net loss, unrealized gain and loss from investments in debt securities, and foreign currency translation adjustments.

Recently Issued Accounting Standards

Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance

In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity (“ASU 2020-06”), which reduced the number of models used to account for convertible instruments, amends the accounting for certain contracts in an entity’s own equity that would have previously been accounted for as derivatives and modified the diluted earnings per share calculations for convertible instruments. The Company adopted ASU 2020-06 on January 1, 2022. As a result of the adoption of ASU 2020-06, the convertible notes issued in May 2022 were considered to be debt with no allocation to equity.

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016 13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses. This ASU added a new impairment model (known as the current expected credit loss (“CECL”) model) that is based on expected losses rather than incurred losses. Under the new guidance, an entity recognizes as an allowance its estimate of expected credit losses. The CECL model applies to most debt instruments, trade receivables, lease receivables, financial guarantee contracts, and other loan commitments. The CECL model does not have a minimum threshold for recognition of impairment losses and entities will need to measure expected credit losses on assets that have a low risk of loss. The Company adopted the ASU as of January 1, 2022, which did not have a material effect on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.